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  • Turkish Context Statement
  • Turkish Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2  

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners Children in this pathway enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in Turkish, English and sometimes other languages or dialects. There will be variation in terms of proficiency in Turkish depending on variables such as home language environment, generational language shift and parental cultural and linguistic background.

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The nature of the learners

Children in this pathway enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in Turkish, English and sometimes other languages or dialects. There will be variation in terms of proficiency in Turkish depending on variables such as home language environment, generational language shift and parental cultural and linguistic background. Children will have varying degrees of literacy capability in both/either Turkish and/or English, and share the experience of belonging to worlds in which languages play a key role. Cognitive and social development at this stage is exploratory and egocentric. The curriculum builds on children’s interests, sense of enjoyment and curiosity, with an emphasis on active learning and confidence building. Turkish is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy, which for some children will be being learned as a second or additional language. Learning in the two areas differs significantly but each supports and enriches the other.

Turkish language learning and use

Rich language input characterises the first stages of learning. Children are familiar with the sounds and patterns of Turkish and their fluency and accuracy is further developed through activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games. Children identify and use high-frequency sentences and phrases, and recognise the purpose and intention of simple texts. They use culturally appropriate non-verbal strategies, and produce statements and expressions in response to prompts and cues. They are supported to use Turkish for different language functions, such as asking and responding to questions, expressing wishes, responding to directions, and taking turns in games and simple shared learning activities. They notice differences between the languages they know and use, and differences in how they communicate in some situations when using Turkish or English. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using Turkish for purposeful interaction in some less familiar contexts.

Contexts of interaction

Children interact with one another and the teacher, with some access to wider school and community members. Information and communications technology (ICT) resources provide additional access to Turkish language and cultural experience, connecting children’s social worlds with those of Turkish-speaking children in communities other than their own. Turkish is the dominant language used in classroom interactions, routines and activities, supported by the use of English when required. The early stage of language and literacy development is supported by use of concrete materials and resources, gestures and body language. Play and imaginative activities, games, music, movement and familiar routines provide essential scaffolding and context for language development.

Texts and resources

Children engage with a variety of spoken, visual, written and digital texts. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas and join in songs, rhymes, stories and chants, and various forms of play and conversational exchanges. Written and digital texts include stories, shared Big Books, walls charts and teacher-generated materials, such as games, labels, captions and flashcards.

Features of Turkish language use

Children’s familiarity with the spoken form of Turkish supports their introduction to the written form of the language. They become familiar with the Turkish alphabet and writing conventions, and are introduced to the sound–letter correspondence of the 21 consonants and eight vowels that make up the alphabet. Writing skills progress from labelling and copying high-frequency words to co-constructing simple texts using familiar vocabulary, language features and structures such as subject–object–verb word order. They apply this order to simple statements, imperatives and questions such as Ali gel. Ali okula gel. Ali okula geldi. Ali okula geldi mi? They learn to describe things, such as colour, mavi, size, büyük/küçük, and shape, üçgen, and recognise that adjectives come before nouns. They use cardinal numbers such as bir-yüz and ordinal numbers such as birinci, ikinci, and use the ending -ler/-lar to express plurality with countable nouns such as çocuklar, ördekler. They form affirmative and negative responses, such as evet, hayır, değil, doğru, yanlış, and use simple suffixes and subject and possessive pronouns, for example, ben/benim, sen/senin, o/onun and evim/evimiz, evin/eviniz, evi/evleri. They describe actions using simple verbs, such as otur, kalk, elini kaldır, koş, yürü, gel, git, oku, yaz. As children learn to adjust language to suit different purposes and situations, they begin to understand how culture shapes language use. They are supported to talk about differences and similarities they notice between Turkish, English and other languages they know, and also between cultural behaviours and ways of communicating. They talk about how they feel when they use different languages, and how they view different languages and the people who use them. This introduction to the meta- dimension of intercultural learning develops the ability to ‘decentre’, to consider different perspectives and ways of being, and to become aware of themselves as communicators and cultural participants.

Level of support

Learning is supported via the provision of experiences which are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling, monitoring and moderating by the teacher; provision of multiple and varied sources of input; opportunities for revisiting, recycling and reviewing; and continuous cueing, feedback, response and encouragement.

The role of English

While learners are encouraged to use Turkish whenever possible, English is used, when appropriate, for discussion, comparison, reflection and explanations. Mixing the two languages is common at this level and reflects children’s experience in their home communities.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions


Interact with the teacher and with peers to exchange greetings and share information about themselves, noticing ways of usingthat are similar or different at home and at school

[Key concepts: self, family, home; Key processes: interacting, greeting, describing]

Participate in guided activities such as songs, games, tasks and transactions, using movement, gestures, pictures and concrete materials to support meaning-making

[Key concepts: play, performance, action learning; Key processes: participating, playing, describing]

Recognise and respond to familiar classroom routines, such as the opening and closing of lessons, transition activities, following instructions and taking turns

[Key concepts: routines, directions, interactions; Key processes: responding, requesting, participating]


Locate key phrases and points of information in simple texts such as messages, announcements, charts, lists or illustrated reference materials, and use the information to complete guided oral and written tasks

[Key concepts: information, meaning, context; Key processes: identifying, matching, creating]

Convey factual information about themselves, their family, friends and experiences using simple phrases, gestures and support materials

[Key concepts: family, community, interests; Key processes: presenting, describing]


Listen to, view and participate in readings of stories, rhymes or action songs, and respond through singing, drawing, gesture and action

[Key concepts: story, imagination, response; Key processes: participating, responding, performing; Keytypes: story, puppetry, rhyme]

Express imaginative experience in stories, songs, rhymes and puppet performances using sound patterns, familiarand non-verbal forms of expression

[Key concepts: character, rhythm, imagination; Key processes: composing, performing, presenting; Keytypes: story, songs, rhymes]


Explain in English the meaning of everyday Turkish words, phrases and gestures, noticing which are similar or different to equivalent words in English or other known languages

[Key concepts: translation, meaning, similarity, difference; Key processes: noticing, translating, comparing, explaining]

simple bilingual print or digital texts, such as captioned picture dictionaries, wall charts, labels for the classroom or ID cards

[Key concepts: meaning, code; Key processes: comparing, matching, translating]


Notice how using Turkish and English involves some different ways of communicating and behaving

[Key concepts: communication, culture, self, difference; Key processes: noticing, comparing]

Identify themselves as members of different groups, including their family, community and school, using simple statements, gestures and support materials

[Key concepts: self, family, community, communication; Key processes: identifying, describing]

Systems of language

Recognise and reproduce the sounds and spellings of Turkish-specific phonemes, /ı/, /ğ/, /ö/, /ü/ /ş/ and /ç/ and make connections between spoken language, alphabetic elements and written forms of the language

[Key concepts: pronunciation, letters, sounds; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, reciting]

Recognise parts of speech and frequently used words in familiar contexts and understand the basic rules of word order in simple sentences

[Key concepts: sentences, grammar, patterns; Key processes: recognising, naming, applying]

Understand thatis organised as ‘texts’ that take different forms and use different structures to achieve their purposes

[Key concepts: text, meaning; Key processes: recognising, selecting]

Language variation and change

Recognise that different words, expressions and gestures are used by speakers of Turkish to address and greet people in different contexts and situations

[Key concepts: variation, context, relationship; Key processes: noticing, comparing, adapting]

Recognise that different languages, including Turkish, borrow words and expressions from each other

[Key concepts:change, word borrowing; Key processes: noticing, comparing, identifying]

Role of language and culture

Understand that people usein ways that reflect their culture, such as where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: culture, meaning, language; Key processes: noticing, identifying, explaining]

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Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers to share information about themselves and to exchange greetings, for example, Merhaba! Günaydın! Tünaydın! İyi günler! İyi akşamlar! İyi geceler! Hoşça kal! Güle güle! Hoş geldiniz! Hoş bulduk! They describe familiar objects and experiences that are important to them, for example, Benim bir köpeğim var. Onun adı Minnoş. Benim en sevdiğim oyuncak, Bugün benim doğum günüm, and compare likes and dislikes, for example, Ben çileği çok severim, Ben elmayı hiç sevmem. They use repetitive language when participating in guided activities and use movement, gestures, pictures and objects to support meaning-making, for example, by singing and performing actions to songs such as Mini mini bir kuş donmuştu. They respond to familiar classroom routines, such as the opening and closing of lessons, and transition activities. They interact in classroom routines, by following instructions, for example, Ayağa kalkın! Oturun! Konuşmak için elinizi kaldırın! Sıraya girin! Defterlerinizi açın,Tabletlerinizin ekranını açın, and taking turns. When interacting, they reproduce the sounds of Turkish and use intonation to distinguish between questions, statements and exclamations, for example, G eliyor musun? / Geliyorsun / Gelsene! They locate key words and information in simple spoken and written texts, such as names of people, places, or categories of objects, for example, meyveler, sebzeler, evcil hayvanlar, çiftlik hayvanları, vahşi hayvanlar, and convey factual information about themselves, their family, friends and experiences, using gestures, support materials and simple statements such as Bugün ben en sevdiğim oyuncağı tanıtacağım . They respond to imaginative experiences through singing, drawing, movement and action, and create and perform simple imaginative texts, such as adaptations to Turkish songs, puppet performances and texts such as Keloğlan stories, using familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression. Students use vocabulary related to familiar contexts, for example, anne, kitap, kedi, and cognates, such as ev, okul, aile, hayvanlar. They use simple sentences with appropriate word order to communicate information about themselves. Students translate the meaning of Turkish words, phrases and gestures used in everyday contexts and situations, and create simple print or digital texts that use both Turkish and English. They identify differences in the ways they communicate and behave in Turkish- and English-speaking contexts, and identify themselves as members of different groups, including the Turkish class and their family and community.

Students identify the sounds of the Turkish language and Turkish spellings of specific phonemes, for example, /ı/, /ö/, /ü/, /ç/, /ğ/, /ş/. They identify parts of speech and basic rules of word order in simple sentences. They identify similarities and differences in features and structures of different types of familiar texts. They provide examples of different words, expressions and gestures that are used by speakers of Turkish to address and greet people in different contexts and situations. They identify words and expressions that different languages, including Turkish, have borrowed from each other. They identify how ways in which people use language reflect where and how they live and what is important to them.

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Years 3 and 4  

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners At this stage, children are developing cognitive and social capabilities that allow for increased control of their learning. They are able to conceptualise and reason, and have better memory and focus. This is a stage of social experimentation, with children referencing themselves against their peers. They are more independent and less egocentr

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The nature of the learners

At this stage, children are developing cognitive and social capabilities that allow for increased control of their learning. They are able to conceptualise and reason, and have better memory and focus. This is a stage of social experimentation, with children referencing themselves against their peers. They are more independent and less egocentric, enjoying both competitive and cooperative activities. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning which builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Turkish language learning and use

Children interact with peers and the teacher in classroom routines and a variety of learning experiences and activities. They engage in a lot of listening, and build oral proficiency through responding to rich language input and opportunities to engage in communicative activities where grammatical forms and language features are purposefully integrated. The language they use and hear is authentic with some modification, using familiar vocabulary and simple structures. Children follow instructions, exchange simple information and express ideas and feelings related to their personal worlds. They negotiate interactions and activities, and participate in shared experiences, performance and play. They read and create short texts on topics relevant to their interests and enjoyment, such as family, pets, favourite activities or food. They continue to build vocabulary that relates to a wider range of domains, such as areas of the curriculum that involve some specialised language use. The language used in routine activities is reused and reinforced from lesson to lesson in different situations, allowing learners to make connections between what has been learnt and what is to be learnt.

Contexts of interaction

The contexts in which students interact in learning and using Turkish are primarily local: the classroom, school, home and community, with some access to wider communities of Turkish speakers and resources through virtual and digital technology. The development of oral proficiency is similar in many ways to their parallel development of English language and literacy, and continues to rely on rich language input in different modes and from different sources.

Texts and resources

Learners engage primarily with a variety of teacher-generated materials, stories, songs, puppet shows and games, and with materials produced for young Turkish learners, such as computer language games, cards and readers. They may also have access to materials developed for children in Turkey and other Turkish-speaking regions of the world, such as television programs, advertisements or web pages, as a means of broadening cultural knowledge and awareness of diversity of language experience.

Features of Turkish language use

Children’s development of literacy skills progresses from supported comprehension and use of high-frequency and personally significant sight words to understanding and applying basic grammatical features of the language, such as simple verb tenses and verb moods, for example, recognising question and imperative forms such as olay ne? Nerede geçti? Neler oldu? Neden oldu? Başla! Başlayabilirsin, Kalk! Kalkabilirsin! Çabuk gel! They recognise in more detail the relationship between spoken and written language, applying spelling patterns, the spacing rule and the principles of vowel harmony, for example, to question endings such as alır mısın? alıyor musun? They use an increasing range of verbs, adjectives and adverbs to describe actions, places and people, for example, mavi köşkte, Kısa saçlı biriydi, Çok dikkatli yürü and Dün sabah geldi, simple conjuunctions to link ideas, ve, ile/-(y)le, ama, çünkü, and prepositions to indicate direction, for example, ileride, ortasında, üzerinde, köşesinde, aşağıda, yukarıda, doğu, batı, kuzey, güney. Children develop metalanguage for talking about language, using terms such as isimler, fiiller, sıfatlar, zarflar, ekler- ismin halleri, zamirler. The development of reading skills and textual knowledge is supported through interaction with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Imaginative and interactive texts, such as picture books, rhymes, stories, puppet play, songs and games, engage the expressive and cultural dimensions of language. Procedural, informational and descriptive texts, such as negotiated classroom rules, tuckshop orders or family and class profiles, show how language is used to ‘get things done’. A balance between language knowledge and language use is established by integrating focused attention to grammar, vocabulary building, pronunciation, and non-verbal and cultural dimensions of language use with communicative and purposeful task activity.

Learning Turkish in school contributes to the process of making sense of the children’s worlds which characterises this stage of development. Children are increasingly aware that the Turkish language is used not only in their own community in Australia and in Turkey, but also in many other places around the world. As they engage consciously with differences between languages and cultures, they make comparisons and consider differences and possibilities in ways of communicating in different languages. This leads them to explore concepts of identity and difference, to think about cultural and linguistic diversity, and about what it means to speak more than one language in the contemporary world.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves continued extensive support. Form-focused activities build children’s grammatical knowledge and develop accuracy and control in spoken and written Turkish; opportunities to apply this knowledge in meaningful learning experiences build communicative skills, confidence and fluency. Tasks are carefully scaffolded: teachers provide models and examples; introduce language, concepts and resources needed to manage and complete the activity; make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting; and provide support for self-monitoring and reflection.

The role of English

The teacher and learners use Turkish wherever possible in classroom interactions and learning activities. English is used for discussion, reflection and explanation when appropriate, for example, when considering the nature and relationship of language and culture, or in tasks that involve bilingual work that includes comparison and analysis of Turkish and English. Discussion in both languages supports learning, develops children’s conceptual frames and builds metalanguage for talking about language and culture systems. The process of moving between languages consolidates their already established sense of what it means to be bilingual/multilingual, and provides opportunities for reflection on the experience of living interculturally in intersecting language communities.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions


Participate in conversations about themselves and others, everyday routines and events at school and in their local communities

[Key concepts: self, experience, community; Key processes: interacting, responding, comparing]

Participate in shared learning experiences and transactions, such as science experiments, cooking or craft activities, creating displays or swapping items

[Key concepts: collaboration, learning experiences, transactions; Key processes: negotiating, creating, transacting]

Respond to questions, directions and requests from the teacher and each other, and use questions and statements to ask for help or permission, to attract attention and to rehearse new language

[Key concepts: direction, support, learning experience; Key processes: interacting, responding]


Locate and organise information in spoken, written and visual texts relating to personal, social and natural worlds

[Key concepts: information, natural world, physical world, daily life; Key processes: listening, reading, identifying, classifying]

Convey information about their home, school and community, using simple statements and support materials such as photos, maps or charts

[Key concepts: information, topic, promotion; Key processes: sharing information, promoting, explaining, informing]


Engage with imaginative texts such as stories, puppet shows, songs or dance, identifying favourite elements and acting out key events or interactions

[Key concepts: imagination, expression, response; Key processes: responding, interpreting; Keytypes: stories, poems, fables, plays, songs]

simple imaginative texts, such as stories, dialogues, songs or chants, which allow for exploration and enjoyment of language

[Key concepts: relationship, emotion, expression, rhythm; Key processes: creating, composing, adapting, presenting]


Identify common spoken Turkish expressions, words or gestures that translate/do not translate readily into English and words that are used in both languages

[Key concepts: equivalence, translation; Key processes: comparing, translating, explaining]

simple bilingual texts such as signs, notices or captions for displays for the classroom and wider school community

[Key concepts: meaning, bilingualism; Key processes: selecting, considering, creating]


Notice and describe differences and similarities in ways of usingand interacting with people when communicating in Turkish and in English

[Key concepts: difference, similarity, respect, relationship; Key processes: observing, comparing, explaining]

Explore their individual and group sense ofand how this is expressed through the different languages they use

[Key concepts: identity, self, community, membership; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, explaining]

Systems of language

Understand and apply the principle of vowel harmony, experiment with Turkish pronunciation,and spelling patterns

[Key concepts: intonation, vowel harmony, pronunciation; Key processes: recognising, applying, distinguishing]

Understand and use key grammatical forms and structures, such as simpletenses, recognising how grammatical forms and functions are represented through suffixation

[Key concepts: action, description, time; Key processes: recognising, selecting, applying]

Notice characteristic features of simple spoken, written and multimodal texts that they use in their home and community and of similar texts in English

[Key concepts: genre,features; Key processes: identifying, comparing, distinguishing]

Language variation and change

Understand thatvaries according to factors such as the age, gender and social position of speakers, and that it involves regional dialects and accents

[Key concepts: variation, status, relationship, standard language; Key processes: noticing, comparing, differentiating]

Recognise that languages change over time and that Turkishis influenced by and also influences other languages and cultures

[Key concepts: change, influence, time, contact; Key processes: comparing, investigating, identifying]

Role of language and culture

Make connections between Turkishand culture, for example, by identifying words, gestures, forms of address or expressions that reflect cultural values and practices

[Key concepts: culture, practice, values; Key processes: noticing, discussing, comparing, interpreting]

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Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information about themselves and others, everyday routines and events at school and in their local Turkish and multilingual communities. They ask and respond to questions to elicit information about each other, for example, Kendini tanıtır mısın? Nerelisin? Ailen nereden geldi? Ben Türküm ve Avustralyalıyım. Ailem Avustralya’ya İzmir’den geldi and identify wishes associated with events in their communities, for example, Bayramınız kutlu olsun! Mutluluklar dilerim. Kınan kutlu olsun! They compare preferences, for example, Futbol yerine tenis oynamak istiyorum and exchange simple written forms of social correspondence, such as invitations, messages for birthdays, Mother’s and Father’s Days, religious celebrations and national days, for example, Bayramınız mübarek olsun! 23 Nisan Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramınız kutlu olsun! Anneler günün kutlu olsun! . They use formulaic expressions to participate in shared tasks, activities and transactional exchanges such as working together to organise an event, for example, Doğum günü davetiyesini kim yazacak? Ben pastayı getiririm. They use modelled language to interact in classroom routines, such as responding to questions directions and requests, for example, Bugün hava nasıl? Bugün hava güneşli ve sıcak! Bugün önce birlikte bir kitap okuyacağız, sonra bir oyun oynayacağız, asking for help or permission, for example, Anlayamadım, tekrar eder misiniz? Bu kelime nasıl okunur?, attracting attention and rehearsing new language. When interacting, they use Turkish pronunciation and intonation and apply the vowel harmony rule to high-frequency words. Students locate and organise key points of information in different types of spoken, written and visual texts relating to personal, social and natural worlds and, with the assistance of support materials such as photos and maps, present information about home, school and community. They respond to imaginative texts by making simple statements about favourite elements and acting out key events and interactions. They create simple imaginative texts using formulaic expressions and modelled language. Students use key grammatical forms and structures, such as verbs, adjectives and adverbs, to describe and elaborate on action, places and people, for example, mavi köşkte, Kısa saçlı biriydi, Çok dikkatli yürü and Dün sabah geldi and conjunctions to link ideas. They express facts using simple present and past tense suffixes, and use negation and affirmation suffixes to form simple sentences, for example, biliyorum/ bilmiyorum, okur/okumaz, uyudu/uyumadı, geleceğim/gelmeyeceğim, gitmiş/gitmemiş . They translate and compare common Turkish and English expressions, words or gestures and create simple bilingual texts for the classroom and community. Students describe similarities and differences in ways of using language and interacting with people when communicating in Turkish and English, and identify how their individual and group sense of identity is expressed in the languages they use.

Students identify Turkish sound and writing patterns to pronounce and spell high frequency words. They use simple metalanguage such as isimler, fiiller, sıfatlar, zarflar, ekler- ismin halleri, zamirler to talk about language. They identify ways that the features of texts differ according to mode and context, and compare Turkish texts with similar texts in English. They provide examples of how language use varies according to age, gender and social position, for example , lütfen yapmayın/yapmasana!/yapma!, and identify regional differences in language use, including dialects and accents. They identify how languages change over time, providing examples of Turkish words borrowed from other languages such as English and vice versa. They make connections between Turkish language and culture, identifying culture-specific terms, expressions and gestures.

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Years 5 and 6  

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners This is a key transitional phase of learning. Learners communicate more confidently, are more self-directed, and self-reference in relation to wider contexts. Response to experience is more analytical and critical, allowing for a reflective dimension to language learning and to referencing cultural frameworks. Language and literacy capabilities

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The nature of the learners

This is a key transitional phase of learning. Learners communicate more confidently, are more self-directed, and self-reference in relation to wider contexts. Response to experience is more analytical and critical, allowing for a reflective dimension to language learning and to referencing cultural frameworks. Language and literacy capabilities in Turkish and English are developing in parallel trajectories within the curriculum. For some learners, there will be greater discrepancy between proficiency in the two languages than for others. The curriculum ensures that learning experiences and activities are flexible enough to cater for learner variables while being appropriate for learners' cognitive and social levels.

Turkish language learning and use

Learners use Turkish in the classroom for a widening range of purposes: exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, competing and cooperating, performing, and responding to resources and experiences. Their communicative capabilities are stronger and more elaborated. They control and access wider vocabulary resources and use an increasingly sophisticated range of non-verbal strategies to support communication. Shared tasks develop social, cognitive and language skills and provide a context for purposeful language experience and experimentation. At this level, focused attention to language structures and systems, literacy skills development and exploration of cultural elements of communication are conducted primarily in Turkish. Learners use ICT to support their learning in increasingly independent and intentional ways, exchanging resources and information with each other and with young people of the same age in other Turkish-speaking communities, accessing music and media resources, maintaining blogs and other web pages, and participating in social networks.

Oracy development at this level includes listening to a range of varied input from different sources and building more elaborated conversational and interactional skills. This includes initiating and sustaining conversations, using turn-taking protocols, ‘reading’ language for cultural and contextual meaning, building on others’ contributions, making appropriate responses and adjustments, and engaging in debate and discussion. Individual and group oral presentation and performance skills are developed through researching and organising information; structuring, rehearsing and resourcing the content of the presentation; and selecting appropriate language to engage a particular audience.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact in Turkish with each other, the teacher and members of their families and communities. They have some access to Turkish speakers and cultural resources in wiser contexts and communities through the use of ICT and through the media. Language development and use are incorporated into collaborative and interactive learning experiences, games and activities.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of published texts in print and digital forms, such as stories, videos, readers, songs and computer-generated learning materials. They also engage with resources prepared by their teacher, including games, performances, presentations and language exercises. They may have additional access to Turkish language and cultural resources created for Turkish-speaking communities, such as children’s television programs, websites, music or video clips.

Features of Turkish language use

Learners draw on more established grammatical and lexical resources to compose and comprehend more complex language. They recognise and use verb conjugations and common noun and adjective forming suffixes, such as (-lı, -li, -lu, -lü) as in kar-lı, kir-li, toz-lu..; (-lik, -lık, -luk, -lük) as in yaz-lık, göz-lük…; (-cı, -ci, -cu, -cü/-çı, -çi, -çu, -çü) as in gemi-ci, kira-cı, su-cu, çiçek-çi..; (-gı, -gi, -gu, -gü) as in sar-gı, sil-gi,..; (-sız, -siz, -suz, -süz) as in ev-siz… They apply the rule of great vowel harmony when adding nominal case endings, -(e), -(i), -d(e), -d(e)n to different nouns, such as ev-e, ev-i, ev-de, ev-den, ev-in. They use the conditional marker -s(e) and/or the word eğer in compound sentences, for example, yağmur yağarsa gitmeyeceğiz, and appropriate endings for subject–verb agreements in simple and compound sentences.

They use a range of cues and decoding strategies to assist comprehension and to make connections between ideas, contexts and language within and between texts. They write more accurately and fluently for a wider range of purposes and audiences. With support, they build increasing cohesion and complexity into their written work in terms of both content and expression. While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support is incorporated into task activity, and systematic feedback and review support the interactive process of learning. They build metalanguage to talk about aspects of language such as grammar, for example, bağlaçlar, özne ile yüklem uyumu, -de/-da ekler, ilgi zamiri –ki, edatlar, and the use of both Turkish and English for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and metalinguistic and intercultural capabilities.

Understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity is developed through guided investigation of how language features and expressions carry specific cultural meaning; through critical analysis of cultural stereotypes, attitudes and perspectives; and through exploration of issues related to personal and community identities. Learners take account of the variability of language use and textual practice in relation to factors such as gender, generation, status, and geographical, cultural and ethnic diversity. They reference themselves in relation to similar variables, and reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity and how these affect communication and intercultural experience through the lens of their own bicultural experiences.

Level of support

While learners are becoming more autonomous and independent, ongoing support is still needed, including explicit instruction, structured modelling and scaffolding, provision of appropriate stimulus materials and timely feedback. Task activities incorporate implicit form-focused language learning activities and examples of texts and tasks. Learners are supported to use electronic and print reference resources, such as word banks, dictionaries and translating tools, and are encouraged to adopt a critical approach to resource selection.

The role of English

Turkish is the primary language for classroom routines, interactions and language learning experiences, with English used more in a supporting role. The use of Turkish for discussion, reflection and explanation of content drawn from other learning areas is encouraged as much as possible, and English is used for comparative analysis between languages and for the continued development of metalanguage in both languages.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions


Participate in spoken, written and digital interactions to share ideas and experiences, showing interest and respect for others

[Key concepts: discussion, correspondence, interests, experiences; Key processes: composing, describing, discussing, responding]

Plan shared activities or events, such as a display or presentation, an interview, awareness campaign or virtual shopping expedition

[Key concepts: collaboration, action, plan; Key processes: planning, designing, budgeting]

Participate in classroom interactions that involve asking and responding to questions, seeking clarification, indicating understanding, reflecting and providing feedback

[Key concepts: classroom interaction, debate, responsibility; Key processes: questioning, responding, evaluating]


Gather, classify and compare information from print, digital and multimodal resources relating to their physical environment and social and cultural worlds

[Key concepts: environment, values, experience, heritage; Key processes: investigating, comparing, classifying]

Convey information about aspects of their own language(s), culture(s) and communities in suitable formats for different audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: culture, interests, transition; Key processes: creating, resourcing, explaining]


Respond to imaginative texts such as TV programs, folktales, performances or cartoons by sharing opinions on elements such as storylines, messages,and themes

[Key concepts: characterisation, response, storytelling; Key processes: comparing, describing, identifying; Keytypes: folktales, comic books, songs, stories]

and perform expressive and imaginative texts such as stories, dance, skits or video clips based on a stimulus concept, theme or resource

[Key concepts: adaptation, genre, audience, effect; Key processes: creating, adapting, performing, experimenting; Keytypes: stories, poems, cartoons, songs, fables]


Translate simple texts from Turkish to English and vice versa, identifying elements that require interpretation rather thanand noticing words that are similar but pronounced differently

[Key concepts: meaning, interpretation, culture; Key processes: identifying, translating, classifying]

bilingual texts such as websites, posters, class journals and menus to support their own learning and to assist interactions with non-Turkish speakers

[Key concepts: equivalence, alternatives; Key processes: considering, selecting, translating]


Discuss the experience of switching between languages, noticing when they choose to use either Turkish or English and how eachinfluences ways of communicating

[Key concepts: code-switching, intercultural communication,domains; Key processes: monitoring, adjusting, reflecting, describing]

Compare their experiences of moving between Turkish and English, identifying advantages and challenges in respect to being bilingual or multilingual

[Key concepts: identity, culture, communication, bilingualism; Key processes: reflecting, evaluating, comparing]

Systems of language

Understand the relationships betweenandin Turkish, and apply this understanding to their own written and spokenand meaning-making

[Key concepts: accent, emphasis, vowel harmony, discrimination; Key processes: understanding, recognising, applying conventions]

Recognise and apply grammatical features of spoken and written language, such as verbal conjugations and nominal declensions and modifications, negative and interrogative sentence structures and subject–verb agreements

[Key concepts: word order, conjugation, marker, word endings; Key processes: discriminating, classifying, applying rules]

Understand how different types ofin Turkish, including prose and verse,effects to suit different audiences

[Key concepts: genre,features, imagery, register; Key processes: noticing, comparing, analysing]

Language variation and change

Understand that spoken and written forms of Turkish both vary in terms of formality according to context, purpose and audience

[Key concepts: mode, register, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, identifying]

Understand that the Turkishhas evolved and developed through different periods of influence from other languages, cultures and changes

[Key concepts:contact,change, globalisation; Key processes: observing, analysing, discussing, reflecting]

Role of language and culture

Reflect on how communities’ ways of using languages are shaped by values and belief systems, and how these may be differently interpreted by speakers of other languages

[Key concepts: culture, perspective, values, practice; Key processes: comparing, explaining, analysing, reflecting]

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Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Turkish to interact by sharing ideas and experiences, for example, 23 Nisan Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramında ben şiir okudum. Ramazan Bayramında dedem bana harçlık verdi. When interacting, they show interest and respect for others by actively listening and providing feedback, for example, Siz ne düşünüyorsunuz? Evet! Tabii ki. İlginç! Sen ne dersin? They use action-oriented language to make shared arrangements, organise events and complete transactions. When participating in classroom and collaborative activities, they ask and respond to questions, for example, Ben ne yapabilirim? Sen not alır mısın? Cevapları maddeler halinde yazsak daha iyi olur. and seek clarification, for example, Bu sayfayı mı okuyacaktık? They use evaluative language to reflect on learning activities and to provide each other with feedback, for example, Süper, harika, mükemmel, unutma, çok zor. Students use specific features of pronunciation, intonation and stress when interacting. They locate, classify and compare information about their physical environment and social and cultural worlds from a range of sources in different modes. They present information about aspects of language and culture in different formats selected to suit audience and context. They respond to a range of imaginative texts by identifying and sharing opinions on key elements such as storylines, characters, messages and themes, for example, Ben … çok beğendim çünkü …, … hiç sevmedim, Çok üzücüydü , and create and perform short imaginative texts based on a stimulus, concept or theme. When constructing texts, students use grammatical features of spoken and written language, such as negative and interrogative sentence structures, for example, Ramazan Bayramı’nda tüm okullar tatile girmeyecek; conjugations of verbs, for example , ‘oku-mak’: oku-r-um, oku-r-sun, oku-r oku-r-uz, oku-r-sunuz, oku-r-lar; And oku-yor-um, oku-yor-sun, oku-yor, oku-yor-uz, oku-yor-sunuz, oku-yor-lar; and subject–verb agreements. When writing, they apply appropriate spelling and punctuation to a range of sentence types. Students translate simple texts from Turkish into English and vice versa, identifying words that are easy or difficult to translate, and create bilingual texts and resources for their own language learning and to support interactions with non-Turkish speakers . Students identify ways in which their bilingual and bicultural experiences impact on their identity and influence how they communicate in Turkish and English.

Students apply their knowledge of vowels, consonants and suffixes to form new words, for example, kapkaççı, bankacı, yolcu, oduncu; sokak+-da=sokakta, süt+-de= sütte, and identify how vowel length and accent affect the meaning of words, for example, hala-hâlâ and kar-kâr . They distinguish between the structure and features of different types of texts and identify ways that texts create effects to suit different audiences. They give examples of how language use and ways of communicating vary according to the degree of formality and context, purpose and audience, for example, gelir misiniz lütfen?/gelin lütfen. Students provide examples of influences on the Turkish language over time, including the influence from other languages and cultures, for example, e-posta, yazıcı, tarayıcı, çevrimiçi. They explain how language use is shaped by values and belief systems, and identify why these may be interpreted differently by speakers of other languages.

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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners The transition to secondary schooling involves social and academic demands that coincide with a period of maturational and physical change. Learners are adjusting to a new school culture with sharper divisions between curriculum areas. There is a need for continuity through change in relation to their language learning. Learners at this level m

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The nature of the learners

The transition to secondary schooling involves social and academic demands that coincide with a period of maturational and physical change. Learners are adjusting to a new school culture with sharper divisions between curriculum areas. There is a need for continuity through change in relation to their language learning. Learners at this level may find themselves in classes that include learners with a range of previous experience with Turkish language-culture. A multilevel and differentiated approach to teaching and task design responds to this diversity of prior experience.

Turkish language learning and use

Turkish is used for classroom interactions and transactions, for creating and maintaining classroom relationships, for explaining and practising language forms, and for developing cultural understanding. Additional opportunities for interaction in the target language are provided by purposeful and integrated use of ICT. Learners work collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar and unfamiliar contexts, and increasingly generate original and personal language. They compose and present more complex and varied texts, for example, media and hypermedia texts, shared stories, poetry, songs/raps, blogs, advertisements, reports and journal entries, and plan, draft and present imaginative and informative texts. They design interactive events and collaborative tasks and participate in discussions and activities. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy, drafting and editing written work to improve structure and clarify meaning. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experience.

Contexts of interaction

While the primary context of interaction remains the Turkish language classroom, learners are encouraged to engage in interactions with peers in Turkey and other Turkish-speaking regions of the world, including Australia, through electronic means of communication. Learners will have additional occasional access to Turkish speakers through media and community events, websites, social media and radio streaming.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts specifically designed for learning Turkish in school, such as textbooks, literary texts, videos, readers and online media resources. They also access materials created for Turkish-speaking communities, such as songs, films, magazines, advertisements and websites. They read, view and interact with a growing range of texts for a wider range of purposes, for example, informational, transactional, communicative, imaginative and expressive.

Features of Turkish language use

Learners continue to expand their range of vocabulary to domains beyond their personal experience and interests. They use a range of grammatical forms and language structures to convey more complex ideas and experiences, for example, by using reflexive, reciprocal, causative and passive verbal mood suffixes, Ozan yıkandı ve sonra giyindi. (reflexive), Maçtan sonra arkadaşı ile buluştu. (reciprocal), Dün kuaförde saçını kestirdi. (causative), Bugün işten kovuldu. (passive). They recognise and use formal and informal honorific forms, such as Bey/Hanım, Amca/Teyze, Efendi, Ağa/Hanımağa, Sayın, abi/ağabey/abla, hoca/öğretmen, bay/bayan, different types of reduplication for emphasis and more complex conjunctions, such as hem...hem de, ne...ne, - ki,), ancak, yoksa, oysa, hatta, rağmen, yani, --e göre. They use interrogative word endings and interrogative pronouns, such as kim, hangi, ne, kaç, for example, Bu akşam bize kim geliyor? Babam kahveyi yapacak mı? They use different auxiliary verb forms by adding verbs such as etmek, kılmak and olmak to nouns and attaching them onto single-syllable words, for example, reddetmek, affetmek, kaybolmak but yardım etmek, namaz kılmak geç kalmak. Learners develop awareness of how language structures shape textual features. They use descriptive and expressive language, including onomatopoeic and mimetic words to create particular effects and engage interest. They adopt a wider range of processing strategies and broader language knowledge when encountering unfamiliar texts, drawing increasingly on their understanding of text conventions and patterns.

Learners make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine how people, issues and circumstances are represented. They are increasingly aware of the nature of the relationship between languages and cultures, noticing, for example, values such as family commitment and respect expressed in cultural practices as well as embedded in Turkish grammatical and vocabulary systems. They reflect on the nature of bicultural and intercultural experience, on how languages change in response to social and cultural change, and on their individual identities as users of two or more languages in a multicultural social context.

Level of support

Particular support is required at this stage of learning to manage the transition to secondary schooling and to encourage continued engagement with language learning. Opportunities to review and consolidate prior learning are balanced against provision of engaging and relevant new experiences and more challenging tasks. Learners require continued scaffolding, modelling and material support at paragraph and whole-text level for written language and for developing fluency and accuracy in spoken language. They are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in various contexts. They are encouraged to engage more critically with resources such as websites, dictionaries, translating tools and other language resources designed to enrich their receptive and productive language use.

The role of English

Turkish is used in more extended and elaborated ways, and English is used when required for comparison or for explanations that are more easily articulated in English. Opportunities to express ideas and feelings, exchange opinions and manage shared learning experiences increasingly involve ‘cultural’ as well as ‘linguistic’ choices, personal and social elements as well as grammatical ones, such as making decisions about the use of titles and polite prefixes. At this stage, learners can move from the what considerations to the why and how questions: from noticing that language and communication are culturally shaped to thinking about the values, experiences and perspectives which lie inside these cultural differences, and about how these impact on their own experience as they move between linguistic and cultural systems.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions


Initiate and sustain a range of spoken and written social interactions and personal reflections, including discussion of their experiences as members of different friendship groups orcommunities

[Key concepts: communication, friendship, perspective; Key processes: discussing, comparing, responding]

Engage in shared activities in real or imagined situations that involve planning, transacting, negotiating, and taking action

[Key concepts: negotiation, planning, responsibility, collaboration; Key processes: discussing, selecting, designing]

Interact with peers and teachers to complete learning activities and to support their own and others’ learning, by managing debate and discussion, checking understanding and reflecting on their learning

[Key concepts: collaboration, response; Key processes: discussing, responding, providing feedback]


Access, collate and analyse information from different print, digital and visual sources to develop deeper understanding of events, personalities or circumstances

[Key concepts: data, context, representation; Key processes: researching, comparing, analysing, presenting, profiling]

Present information and personal perspectives on issues of local or global interest, using a range of spoken, written and multimodal forms

[Key concepts: action, experience, cultural expression; Key processes: summarising, reporting, comparing, presenting]


and compare representations of values,and events in a range of traditional and contemporary imaginative texts

[Key concepts: theme, representation, values, concept; Key processes: comparing, analysing, identifying; Keytypes: cartoons, song lyrics, stories, films]

Present, reinterpret oralternative versions of songs, images or stories, adapting events orto different modes or cultural contexts

[Key concepts: creativity, characterisation, imagination, emotion; Key processes: adapting, composing, performing; Keytypes: sketches, drama, songs, stories, cartoons]


Translate andshort texts from Turkish into English and vice versa, comparing versions and considering how to explain elements that involve cultural knowledge or understanding

[Key concepts: meaning, equivalence, culture, translation; Key processes: translating, approximating, explaining, comparing]

Produce short bilingual texts such as digital stories, comics, blogs and contributions to newsletters or websites which capture the experience of ‘living between languages’

[Key concepts: equivalence, interpretation; Key processes: explaining, creating, selecting, glossing, translating]


Consider their use of Turkish and English in different contexts, considering how their choices position them as intercultural communicators

[Key concepts: code-switching, code-mixing, intercultural communication; Key processes: monitoring, analysing, reflecting]

Consider how their personal biography, including family origins, traditions, interests and experiences, shapes their sense ofand influences their ways of communicating

[Key concepts: bilingualism/multilingualism, culture, identity; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, comparing]

Systems of language

Recognise and use appropriate features of Turkish sound and writing systems to produce texts that include specialised and less familiar language

[Key concepts: vowel elision, rhythm, stress; Key processes: identifying, experimenting, applying]