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  • Overview
  • Turkish Context Statement
  • Turkish Years F–10 Sequence
  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students coming into this pathway are background learners of Turkish with varying degrees of proficiency in the language. All have family and community connections with the language and associated cultures, or with languages or dialects related to Turkish. Some may have recently arrived in Australia, may have completed the primary years of scho

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The nature of the learners

Students coming into this pathway are background learners of Turkish with varying degrees of proficiency in the language. All have family and community connections with the language and associated cultures, or with languages or dialects related to Turkish. Some may have recently arrived in Australia, may have completed the primary years of schooling in Turkish and may have established literacy as well as oracy skills in the language. Others will have participated in community language programs during these years and have some literacy capabilities. Others may have minimal experience of formal learning of Turkish, with no literacy proficiency and varying degrees of oral capabilities, depending on their home language environment. All students share the experience of belonging to worlds in which languages play a key role and diversity of language use is common. The curriculum takes into account the diversity of learners, ensuring that tasks and activities are flexible to cater for different language capabilities while being appropriately pitched to all learners’ cognitive and social levels.

Turkish language learning and use

Students use Turkish to interact with each other, the teacher and other speakers of the language, to access and exchange information, to express ideas and feelings, to compete and to cooperate in learning tasks and activities. They build vocabulary resources, grammatical knowledge and communicative capabilities such as active listening skills and interactional strategies through shared learning experiences that provide a context for purposeful language use and through focused learning episodes that develop understanding of language systems and an ability to use metalanguage. They use modelled and rehearsed language to compose and present different types of texts, for example, shared stories, media and hypermedia texts, songs, poems, reports or journal entries. They plan, draft and present imaginative and informative texts, design interactive events and participate in discussions. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences. Learners use ICT to support their learning in increasingly independent and intentional ways, exchanging resources with each other and with learners in different contexts.

Contexts of interaction

Students interact primarily with each other and the teacher in class, with some access to broader Turkish-speaking networks in the school and local community. ICT resources, such as email, online chats or wikis, provide access to additional experiences of authentic communication, connecting learners’ social worlds with those of Turkish-speaking peers in other contexts. Learners have additional access to Turkish language experience through media, community events, websites, social media and radio streaming.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts designed for in-school learning of Turkish, such as textbooks, readers, literary texts, videos, online media resources and materials. They also access materials created for Turkish-speaking communities, such as songs, films, magazines and social media texts such as blogs and advertisements and websites. They interact with a range of texts created for different purposes, for example, informational, transactional, communicative, expressive and imaginative texts, and make connections between these text types in Turkish and the work they do around similar texts in the English learning area.

Features of Turkish language use

Learners recognise and use key elements of Turkish grammar, such as word order, positions of adjectives, adverbs and postpositions, and recognise how grammatical forms and functions are represented through agglutination. They apply the principles of vowel harmony, for example, when adding nominal case endings, -(e), -(i), -d(e), -d(e)n to nouns, such as ev-e, ev-i, ev-de, ev-den, ev-in. They understand and use simple verb tenses, using negation and affirmation and suffixes to form sentences, such as biliyorum/bilmiyorum, okur/okumaz, uyudu/uyumadı, geleceğim/gelmeyeceğim, gitmiş/gitmemiş. They use a range of adjectives, adverbs and postpositions to describe actions, places and people in their own texts, for example, mavi köşkte, Kısa saçlı biriydi, Çok dikkatli yürü, Dün sabah geldi ; and understand and use the conditional marker -s(e) and/or the word eğer in compound sentences, for example, Eğer kitap okursan hayal gücün gelişir. They develop their range of vocabulary to domains beyond their personal experience and interests, use and analyse grammatical forms and structures and develop awareness of how these shape textual features. They use descriptive and expressive language to create particular effects and engage interest. They develop language knowledge, processing strategies and understanding of text conventions and patterns to assist in comprehending unfamiliar texts. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine how people, issues and experiences are represented. They are aware of the nature of the relationship between languages and cultures, noticing, for example, how particular Turkish words or expressions ‘carry’ cultural values or experiences. They reflect on the nature of bicultural and multicultural experience, on how languages change in response to broader social and cultural shifts, and how they perceive their own identities as users of two or more languages in a multicultural society.

Level of support

Differentiated support is required for learners with different levels of oracy and literacy proficiency. All learners require opportunities to review and consolidate learning; different degrees of balance between consolidation work and provision of more challenging tasks ensure learners at different levels are catered for. Teachers provide scaffolding, modelling and material and resource support for the development of fluency and accuracy in spoken language and of grammatical and literacy capabilities. Learners are supported to develop autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in different communicative contexts. They are encouraged to engage critically with resources such as websites and translating tools and other resources designed to strengthen their receptive and productive language use.

The role of English

Learners are encouraged to use Turkish whenever possible. English is used when appropriate for discussion, explanation, comparison and reflection, for example, when considering the nature and relationship of language and culture or in tasks which involve bilingual work that includes comparison and analysis of Turkish and English. The process of moving between and using both languages consolidates learners’ already established sense of what it means to be bilingual or multilingual and provides opportunities for reflection on the experience of living interculturally in intersecting language communities.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions


Interact with peers and teacher to socialise, exchange information and opinions,about personal worlds

[Key concepts: self, family, leisure, preferences; Key processes: interacting, exchanging information, describing]

Plan and participate in collaborative activities such as performances, displays and events which involve planning, transacting and negotiating

[Key concepts: interaction, collaboration, negotiation; Key processes: planning, negotiating, responding, creating]

Interact in classroom routines and exchanges, such as asking and responding to questions, requesting help, repetition or permission, giving praise or encouragement

[Key concepts: discussion, clarification, feedback; Key processes: questioning, suggesting, responding]


Identify key points of information such as details about people, places or events in a range of spoken, written andand use the information in new ways

[Key concepts: data, information, experience; Key processes: researching, recording, reporting]

Convey information, obtained from personal, community and media sources relating to their own cultural, social and environmental contexts, using spoken, written and digital modes of communication

[Key concepts: experience, lifestyle, culture, diversity; Key processes: creating, presenting]


Engage with imaginative and creative texts such as stories, cartoons, poems and songs, identifying favourite elements and discussing events,and messages

[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, character, narrative, representation; Key processes: responding, creating, analysing, reviewing; Keytypes: poetry, folktales, story, song]

Reinterpret ortexts that involve imagination and creativity, experimenting with a range of expressive andgenres

[Key concepts: humour, suspense, character, dramatisation; Key processes: composing, creating, performing; Keytypes: stories, cartoons, songs, role plays, speeches]


Translate andfamiliar texts such as public signs, song titles or menus from Turkish to English and vice versa, noticing which words or phrases translate easily and which do not

[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning, translation, interpretation; Key processes: translating, explaining, evaluating]

shared bilingual texts and learning resources such as word banks, glossaries, displays and digital presentations

[Key concepts:codes, meaning, equivalence; Key processes: creating, interpreting, exemplifying, explaining]


Consider similarities and differences in ways of communicating in Turkish and English, noticing how/when they choose to use eitheror both languages

[Key concepts:domains, code-switching, generation, expression; Key processes: comparing, identifying, monitoring, analysing]

Consider the nature ofand of cultural experience, reflecting on how their linguistic and cultural background contributes to their sense of identity

[Key concepts: identity, multiculturalism, code-switching, communication; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, comparing]

Systems of language

Understand the relationship between the sounds, rhythms,andpatterns of spoken Turkish, and recognise elements of the written language, such as spelling patterns, agglutination, vowel harmony and symbols

[Key concepts: pronunciation, intonation, vowel harmony, agglutination; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, recognising, applying]

Recognise and use key elements of Turkish grammar, such as word order, positions of adjectives, adverbs and postpositions and sentence structures, recognising how grammatical forms and functions are represented through agglutination

[Key concepts: grammar, sentence structure, agglutination; Key processes: understanding, recognising, applying]

Identify features that characterise different types of texts in Turkish, comparing them with similar texts in English

[Key concepts: genre,features, register; Key processes: noticing, analysing, comparing]

Language variation and change

Understand that Turkishuse varies according to factors such as age, gender, social position or regional variation

[Key concepts: variation, context, register, relationship; Key processes: noticing, identifying, comparing, explaining]

Recognise that the Turkishhas evolved and developed through different periods of time, across different contexts and as a result of different influences and interactions, and that it is related to many other languages and has influenced other languages used in the Australian community

[Key concepts:change,contact, loan words, globalisation; Key processes: investigating, identifying, classifying]

Role of language and culture

Understand the relationship betweenand culture, reflecting on howreflects personal and community experience and values, and may be differently interpreted by speakers of other languages

[Key concepts :culture, language, meaning, interdependence, perspective; Key processes: analysing, identifying, reflecting, making connections]

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Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information and express opinions, for example, Arkadaşlarımla sinemaya gitmeyi severim. They use descriptive and expressive language to share feelings and to express preferences such as Suyu gazoza tercih ederim. Students use action-related and rehearsed language to engage in shared activities that involve planning, collaborating, transacting and negotiating, for example, Haftada kaç kez … yapıyorsun? … hakkında ne düşünüyorsun? They interact in classroom routines and exchanges by asking and responding to questions, for example, Ben ne yapabilirim? Sen not alır mısın?, requesting help or permission, for example, Sence bu doğru mu? Tekrar eder misiniz? Arkadaşlar bakar mısınız? Bunu nasıl yapacağız? and giving praise or encouragement, such as çok güzel, aferin, harika, tebrikler, başarılarının devamını dilerim, seninle gurur duyuyorum. When interacting, they use the features of the sound system to their pronunciation of Turkish, including applying stress, rhythm and intonation patterns to statements, for example, kapı açık kaldı, inanmıyorum, and questions, for example, gerçekten mi? Students locate key points of information from a range of spoken, written and visual texts, and present information related to social, cultural and environmental contexts using different modes of presentation. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by identifying and comparing favourite elements and discussing events, characters and messages, for example, beni… çok etkiledi çünkü …, Çok komikti çok sürükleyiciydi, akıcıydı, dili anlaşılırdı, biraz uzundu. Sıkıcıydı, karmaşıktı… Çok üzücüydü , Anlaşılması zordu . Students use imaginative language to create original or adapt familiar imaginative texts in different genres. They use key elements of Turkish grammar in spoken and written texts, such as basic rules of word order, for example, Ali topu attı , Ali topu al ve at! and Ali topu Tarkan dan sonra bana atar mısın?, adjectives, for example, mavi köşkte adverbs, for example, çok dikkatli yürü , postpositions, for example, dün sabah geldi , verb tenses and subject–verb agreement, for example, Defne yemekten sonra ödevini yaptı ve uyudu . They apply rules of agglutination to verbs, for example , bilmiyorum/biliyorum, okur/okumaz, uyudu/uyumadı, geleceğim/gelmeyeceğim, gitmiş/gitmemiş , and nouns, for example, ev-e, ev-i, ev-de, ev-den, kebap ç ı, simit ç i . They translate and interpret familiar texts from Turkish into English and vice versa, identifying words and phrases that are not easily translated, such as imece , hayırlı olsun , nazar değmesin, and create shared bilingual texts to support their own learning. They compare ways of communicating in Turkish and English and explain how being bilingual influences their cultural identity and ways of communicating.

Students apply elements of the Turkish writing system to write and spell unfamiliar words, including symbols and characters, for example, hala-hâlâ, kar-kâr, kitap-kitabı, ağaç-ağacı , vowel harmony and sound assimilation of consonants. They identify how grammatical forms and functions are represented through agglutination. They identify the characteristic features of different types of texts and compare these features with texts in English to identify similarities and differences. They describe how language use varies according to age, gender, social position or region. Students provide examples of how the Turkish language has changed over time due to different influences and interactions, identifying Turkish words that have emerged through contact with other languages, for example, e-posta, yazıcı, tarayıcı, genel ağ, fare, tıklamak, sanal âlemde gezmek, sanal gerçek . They identify the relationship between language and culture and describe how languages reflect personal and community experience and values.

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Years 9 and 10  

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language l

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The nature of the learners

This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning and use are influenced by peer–group dynamics, personal interests and values, and issues related to self-concept. This is particularly the case for bilingual learners for whom the duality of living between languages and cultural communities continuously impacts on the process of identity construction. The role of language is central to this process. It is reflected in the degree to which learners self-define as members of language communities, how they position themselves in relation to peer groups and the choices they make in relation to linguistic and social practices. These processes are fluid and context-responsive, and they impact on learners’ engagement with both Turkish and English language learning and use.

Turkish language learning and use

This is a stage of language exploration and vocabulary expansion. Learners experiment with different modes of communication, for example, digital and hypermedia, performance and discussion. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in wider contexts. Learners use Turkish to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to design, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They use language in different contexts more fluently, with a developing degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their written language use against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence language use and forms of communication.

Contexts of interaction

The language classroom is the main context of interaction in Turkish, involving interactions with peers, teachers and a wide range of texts and resources. Learners continue to interact with peers, family members and other Turkish speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider Turkish-speaking communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They also encounter Turkish in wider contexts such as media, cultural or film festivals, community events or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and resources, such as textbooks, videos, media texts and online resources, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They engage with selected abridged versions of classic and contemporary Turkish literature and their film and TV adaptations. Learners may also access authentic materials designed for or generated by young Turkish speakers in a range of contexts, such as blogs, video clips, discussion forums, television programs or newspaper features. Learners are encouraged to source additional materials to support their learning, share them with others and pursue personal interests in aspects of Turkish language and associated cultures.

Features of Turkish language use

Learners understand and use more elaborated grammatical structures, such as verb moods, auxiliary verbs and particles. They recognise and use different types of formal and informal honorific forms, such as Bey/Hanım, Amca/Teyze, Efendi, Ağa/Hanımağa, Sayın, Ağabey (Abi)/Abla, Hoca/Öğretmen, Bay/Bayan, and learn the conditions that apply to the use of familiar and formal second person singular forms -n and -n(ı)z, for example, Yemeğin hazır, Yemeğininz hazır, and second person pronouns, sen and siz. They understand and use verb moods, recognising relevant suffixes used to create each mood. They learn how to use different auxiliary verbs by adding the verbs etmek, kılmak and olmak to nouns, for example, yardım etmek, namaz kılmak, ayıp olmak and attaching them onto single-syllable words, for example, reddetmek, affetmek, kaybolmak. They understand and use the three types of reduplication for emphasis. They use metalanguage to identify or explain language structures, forms and conventions. Learners’ vocabulary knowledge expands to include more abstract words and specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of wider personal interest. Textual knowledge and capability are strengthened through maintaining a balance between learning experiences which focus on language forms and structures and communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different purposes and audiences. Task characteristics and conditions become more complex and challenging, involving collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance. Elements involve interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. Genres such as media resources, fiction and nonfiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance, for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationship issues, questions of diversity and inclusivity. Learners investigate texts through more critical analysis, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning, and how they in turn are shaped by context and intention.

Learners at this level understand and discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity. They explore in more depth and detail the processes involved in learning and using different languages, recognising them as involving cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic resources. They identify how meaning-making and representation in different languages involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on their ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop a capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural ways through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

At this level learners become less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions and learning experiences, but provision of rich language input and modelled language is needed to continue to support and sustain their language learning. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in context, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to language structures, grammatical functions and abstract concepts and vocabulary knowledge. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating knowledge and skills and in developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback, through and contributing to peer support and through self-review.

The role of English

Learners and teachers use Turkish as the primary medium of interaction in both language-oriented and content-oriented learning activities. English is used when appropriate for discussion, explanation and analysis that involves comparative analysis or conceptual demands which may be better articulated in English. Learners are supported to reflect on the different roles English and Turkish play in their academic work, their conceptual development and their social and community lives.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Exchange views and information on local and global issues, including aspects of their own lives, such as family relationships and responsibilities, education and community

[Key concepts: relationship, education, family, community; Key processes: discussing, debating, responding, comparing]

Participate in individual and collaborative projects and learning experiences that involve brainstorming, negotiating, transacting, problem-solving and action

[Key concepts: discussion, action, responsibility, collaboration; Key processes: problem-solving, planning, negotiating, collaborating]

Contribute to structured discussions and shared learning experiences by asking and responding to questions, clarifying statements, demonstrating understanding, expressing agreement or disagreement and reflecting on their learning

[Key concepts: debate, response, dialogue; Key processes: questioning, responding, evaluating, reflecting]


Organise and classify information compiled from different sources in different modes of presentation, re-presenting chosen elements in formats suitable for particular audiences

[Key concepts: information, data, perspective, representation, media; Key processes: summarising, surveying, comparing, analysing]

Present information collected from different sources that represents different perspectives on selected issues or activities, using appropriate modes of presentation to suit different contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: argument, opinion, action; Key processes: selecting, composing, presenting]


Respond to a range of traditional and contemporary creative and imaginative texts, describing settings, identifying key themes and values and discussing the representation ofand events

[Key concepts: expression, themes, representation, values; Key processes: comparing, analysing, explaining, narrating; Keytypes: stories, song lyrics, films, poetry, dance, diaries]

imaginative texts in different modes and formats to entertain, convey ideas and express emotions for particular audiences

[Key concepts: adaptation, audience, characterisation, context; Key processes: creating, adapting, performing; Keytypes: poems, stories, songs, skits]


Translate anda range of texts, including conversational exchanges, proverbs, media and literary texts, considering the role ofwhen transferring meaning from oneto the other

[Key concepts: bilingualism, translation, interpretation, equivalence; Key processes: composing, interpreting, explaining]

Produce bilingual texts for the school or wider community, such as instructions, presentations, commentaries or contributions to newsletters that capture the experience of ‘living between languages’

[Key concepts: interculturality, multiculturalism, identity, fluidity; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, describing, comparing]


Reflect on their own and others’choices when interacting in bilingual/bicultural situations, identifying adjustments they make and strategies they adopt to assist in intercultural communication

[Key concepts: interculturality, response, reflection, reciprocity; Key processes: reflecting, monitoring, comparing, discussing]

Reflect on the relationship between language,and identity, and how this shapes and reflects ways of communicating and thinking

[Key concepts: affiliation, identity, community, representation; Key processes: representing, discussing, reflecting]

Systems of language

Understand and apply features of the Turkish sound and writing systems, includingand spelling patterns, to produce different types of texts and to participate in extended interactions

[Key concepts: word building, pronunciation, stress, cohesion; Key processes: recognising, applying, glossing]

Understand and use grammatical forms such asmoods, auxiliary verbs, particles andforms, and useto identify or explainforms, structures and conventions

[Key concepts: grammatical systems, tenses,moods, sentence structure, cohesion; Key processes: understanding, classifying, applying]

Know how to construct different types of texts to suit different contexts, purposes and audiences, incorporating appropriate cultural elements

[Key concepts: genre, context, register, mode, audience; Key processes: analysing, comparing, composing]

Language variation and change

Understand that variations in the use of spoken and written Turkish relate to roles, relationships and contexts, and consider how and why these differ from similar interactions in English

[Key concepts: register, values, non-verbal communication; Key processes: identifying, explaining, comparing]

Investigate changes to Turkish over time and across contexts, reflecting on changes in their personal use of the language

[Key concepts: change, social media, history, culture; Key processes: tracking, reflecting, discussing]

Role of language and culture

Understand that the Turkishand associated cultures shape and are shaped by each other in ways that change over time and across contexts, and that cultural experience, values and identities are reflected in language

[Key concepts: change, social practice, values, concepts, expression; Key processes: tracking, identifying, comparing, analysing]

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Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students interact in written and spoken Turkish to exchange and compare views and experiences on personal, local and global issues, for example, liseyi bitirince Türkiye’de üniversiteye gitmek istiyorum, okulu bitirdikten sonra seyahat etmek istiyorum . They use action-related and spontaneous language to engage in shared activities that involve brainstorming, transacting, negotiating, problem-solving and taking action, for example, Nasıl bir yöntem izleyelim? Bence bu yöntemi izlersek daha uygun, Sen nasıl uygun görürsen. They offer opinions, for example, bana göre, and justify them, for example, şöyle ki, Haklısın ama bence … . They engage in structured discussions by asking and responding to questions, for example , görüşünü destekleyecek kanıtın var mı? and expressing agreement or disagreement, for example, seninle aynı fikirde değilim. When speaking, they apply the vowel elision rule to suffixes of multisyllabic words, the principles of word stress to pronounce unfamiliar words and phrases and intonation patterns, stress and tone to contribute to the cohesion of longer spoken texts. Students organise and classify information and ideas obtained from different sources, re-presenting content in new formats for different audiences. They convey information and perspectives using different modes of presentation appropriate to a variety of contexts and to achieve different purposes. They share their responses to a range of traditional and contemporary imaginative texts by describing key elements, including settings, themes and values and discussing the representation of characters and events. They use expressive, descriptive and evocative language to produce imaginative texts in a range of modes and formats selected to suit particular audiences. When writing, they identify and use a variety of verb moods, such as potential, for example, yazabilmek, koşabilmek , reflexive, for example , Tayla giyindi ve süslendi , reciprocal, for example, Babası ile araba için tartıştı , causative, for example, Dün kuaförde saçını boyattı and passive, for example, Pirinç ayıklandı ve pilav pişirildi. They use grammatical forms such as auxiliary verbs, for example, yardım etmek, namaz kılmak, ayıp olmak ; particles, for example, karşı, gibi, beri, dek, kadar, üzere ; and honorific forms, for example, Bey/Hanım, Amca/Teyze, Efendi, Ağa/Hanımağa, Sayın, Ağabey(Abi)/Abla i , Hoca/Öğretmen, Bay/Bayan /. Students translate and interpret a range of texts from Turkish into English and vice versa, explaining how cultural elements affect meaning. They produce a range of multimodal resources in Turkish and English for the wider community which reflect the bilingual experience. They explain their language choices and communicative behaviours in different intercultural interactions and identify the adjustments they make according to context. They explain how language, culture and identity shape and reflect ways of communicating and thinking.

Students apply their understanding of the Turkish writing system, including spelling patterns, symbols, characters and punctuation, to express complex ideas and information and to engage in extended interactions. They use metalanguage to explain language forms, structures and conventions. They apply their understanding of texts to construct a range of written, spoken and multimodal texts, incorporating elements appropriate to culture and context. They explain how language use varies according to roles, relationships and contexts, and make comparisons with other languages, including English. They identify influences, such as technology and social media on Turkish and other languages, such as abbreviations in text messages, for example, nbr (ne haber), tmm (tamam), slm (selam), kib (kendine iyi bak), bye (güle güle) and aeo (allaha emanet ol). They explain variations in their own language use in different contexts, the reciprocal and evolving nature of the relationship between language and culture, and how cultural experiences, values and identities are reflected in language.

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