Modern Greek

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  • Overview
  • Modern Greek Context Statement
  • Modern Greek Years F–10 Sequence
  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students are beginning their study of Modern Greek and typically have little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt a different language in primary school, while some will have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural aware

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The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Modern Greek and typically have little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt a different language in primary school, while some will have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Modern Greek. Students’ textual knowledge developed through English literacy supports the development of literacy in Modern Greek. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider how the experience impacts on the sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

Modern Greek language learning and use

Learners listen to, speak, read and write Modern Greek in a widening range of interactions for a variety of purposes. They participate in role-plays, discussions, games, practical activities and competitions, and are supported to use Modern Greek as much as possible. They use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and increasingly generate original and personal language. They plan, draft and present imaginative texts, and design interactive events and collaborative tasks. They express ideas and feelings, exchange opinions, and manage shared activities. Learners work collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They focus on the different systems that structure language use (grammar, vocabulary, sounds, the Greek alphabet and script) and gradually build a vocabulary and grammatical base that allows them to compose and present different kinds of texts, such as posters, advertisements and songs. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences through interaction with speakers of Greek. They are encouraged to reflect on language, ideas and their sense of self, and consider connections within and across languages and cultures.

Contexts of interaction

Modern Greek is used not only for classroom interactions and transactions, but also for broader interactive and intercultural experiences, for example, in school excursions, sister-school relationships, and study trips to Greece, Cyprus and other Greek-speaking communities. Extra opportunities for interaction are provided through purposeful and integrated use of information and communication technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and online activities such as e-learning. Texts and resources

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. They also use materials designed for students of Modern Greek in different contexts, for example, blogs, newsletters, advertisements, magazines, video clips and apps. Authentic texts from different sources provide opportunities for discussion and analysis of the relationship between language and culture.

Features of Modern Greek language use

Learners become familiar with the sounds of Modern Greek, including pronunciation, rhythm, pitch and stress (Πώς πας Αντώνη; το αυτοκίνητό μου). They approximate the pronunciation and phrasing of vocabulary and short sentences (Σας αρέσει το παγωτό;) and develop their understanding and use of the Greek alphabet. They apply elements of Modern Greek grammar to the production of simple texts, such as subject–verb–object word order, simple verb forms (είμαι, παίζω, θέλω, γράφω), adjectives and adverbs (μεγάλος, μικρός, πολλή, πολύ) and conjunctions (και, αλλά) to link ideas. They make comparisons between Greek and English, for example, το αυτοκίνητο/automobile/car, το αμφιθέατρο/amphitheatre, and other languages they know, focusing on similarities and differences between languages and cultural systems. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine ways in which people, issues and circumstances are represented (καλή όρεξη, καλό ταξίδι, με το καλό, με γεια).

Level of support

A multilevel and personalised approach to teaching and task design caters for the diversity of prior experience of learners. Support includes scaffolding, modelling and monitoring, explicit instruction and feedback, and structured activities for practising new language. Students are supported to develop autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust simple language in response to their experience in diverse contexts. Opportunities to review and consolidate are an important component of learning at this level.

The role of English

Modern Greek is the main language of instruction and interaction, while English may be used for conceptually demanding explanations and discussions, particularly when making connections between Modern Greek and other languages and cultures.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions


Interact with peers and teacher to exchange information and opinions about self, family, friends and interests, and express feelings, likes and dislikes

[Key concepts: family, friendship, leisure; Key processes: introducing, interacting, describing]

Participate in collaborative activities, such as performances and presentations, that involve planning and making arrangements

[Key concepts: tasks, performance, transaction, collaborative learning; Key processes: planning and managing tasks, contributing]

Interact in class routines and exchanges by asking and responding to questions, following instructions and seeking help and permission

[Key concepts: routine, roles; Key processes: participating, questioning, responding]


Locate and use key points of information, such as main ideas, specific details and general descriptions from a range of spoken, written, visual, digital or multimodal texts

[Key concepts: interconnection across events and actions, discovery; Key processes: listening, reading, identifying, classifying]

Use spoken, written and multimodal forms of presentation to convey information on selected topics of interest

[Key concepts: representation, culture; Key processes: informing, reporting, speaking, writing]


Access imaginative texts such as cartoons, songs, stories or digital texts, and respond by describing aspects such as characters, events and ideas

[Key concepts: plot, character, experience; Key processes: interpreting, recounting, describing]

or represent and perform own imagined scenarios,and events, using stimulus materials and modelled language

[Key concepts: imagination, creativity; Key processes: expressing, performing]


Translate andtexts such as emails, signs and notices from Greek to English and English to Greek, using contextualand familiar textual features and recognising aspects that are similar and different in the twoversions

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: interpreting, translating, explaining]

bilingual texts and resources to support their own learning, such as glossaries and personal dictionaries, digital resources and charts

[Key concepts: equivalence, context, meaning; Key processes: translating, interpreting, explaining]


Engage with speakers of Greek recognising that interaction involves the expression of cultural experience and values as well as language

[Key concepts: exchange, awareness, interpretation, cultural frames; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, responding]

Recognise their own and others’ ways of expressing identity, reflecting on the relationship between language,and identity

[Key concepts: communication, identity; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, comparing, connecting]

Systems of language

Identify similarities and differences between the phonological and orthographic systems of English and Greek, including accentuation andin oral language, andand use the Greek script

[Key concepts: sound system, writing system; Key processes: recognising, imitating, comparing]

Recognise and use vocabulary and grammatical elements such as articles, pronouns and gender forms, and a limited range of common verbs in the present tense tosimple sentences and phrases

[Key concepts: vocabulary, grammatical structures; Key processes: understanding, making connections, applying]

Recognise and understand characteristic features of common types of text, comparing them with equivalent texts in English

[Key concepts: equivalence, genre; Key processes: noticing, comparing, explaining]

Language variation and change

Understand that Greek, like all languages, varies according to participants, roles and relationships,and culture

[Key concepts: variation, register; Key processes: noticing, comparing]

Understand that Greek is athat has influenced many global languages and continues to influence and change through interaction with other languages and cultures

[Key concepts: dynamic systems, communication, relationships; Key processes: recognising, comparing, discussing]

Role of language and culture

Identify connections between language,and communication, recognising howstyles and practices vary across cultures and how intercultural exchange involves the exchange of meaning as well as words

[Key concepts: interdependence, values, norms; Key processes: analysing, making connections]

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Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use Greek to describe feelings (for example, Αγαπώ τη μουσική ), express likes and dislikes (for example, Δε μου αρέσει η σοκολάτα ) and exchange information about their personal worlds, including information about themselves (for example, Mε λένε Γιώργο, Mένω στην Αυστραλία ), their family (for example, O πατέρας μου είναι ψηλός ), friends (for example, Ο Γιάννης είναι φίλος μου ) and interests such as, Μου αρέσει η μπάλα . They interact with others in collaborative and classroom activities, using modelled language to carry out transactions (for example, Τι ώρα θα πάμε κυρία; Πόσο κάνουν οι καφέδες ;), ask and respond to familiar questions such as, Το τρένο φεύγει στις δέκα ; follow instructions, and seek help or permission (for example, Μπορώ να πάω σινεμά; Η τράπεζα είναι στο δεύτερο δρόμο δεξιά, Συγγνώμη κύριε αλλά δεν καταλαβαίνω ). When interacting, students pronounce Greek sounds, and use intonation and accentuation such as, Το σχολείο, ο φίλος, οι φίλοι , Η Ελένη αγόρασε καινούρια μπλούζα . They obtain information and identify key points from different sources, using non-verbal and contextual clues to help make meaning. Students describe characters, events and ideas in imaginative texts using high-frequency vocabulary and create short informative and imaginative texts using modelled sentence structures and formulaic expressions (for example, Γεια σου μαμά / Καλημέρα κυρία Σοφία, Πώς είστε; χαιρετισμούς, Με αγάπη ). They use the present tense (for example, Μένω στην Αυστραλία ), common verbs (for example, γράφω, διαβάζω, θέλω, είμαι, έχω ) and other grammatical structures such as verb endings (for example, ω, εις, ει, ουμε, ετε, ουν ) and singular and plural forms (for example, ο, οι, η, οι, το, τα ) to create simple sentences and phrases such as, Τί κάνεις σήμερα ; They translate and interpret texts using contextual clues and textual features and create simple bilingual texts for classroom use. When interacting, students modify their language and behaviour and recognise that aspects of their own language and culture impact on intercultural exchange (for example, Το Πάσχα βάφουμε κόκκινα αυγά).

Students identify the similarities and differences between the sound systems of Greek and English (for example, γγ, μπρ, τσ, γκ, ντρ, ντ, γ, ζ, υ, ξ, ψ, χ, μυθολογία, ιστορία, οξυγόνο, χιλιόμετρο ). They describe the key features of common types of texts, comparing them with equivalent text types in English. They give examples of how language varies according to participants, roles and relationships, and context and culture (for example, η μαμά, η μητέρα ). They identify ways that Greek language and culture have influenced and continue to influence many global languages. They analyse words and expressions to identify and explain connections between language and culture such as, Στην υγεία σου/σας, Με γεια, Γεια στα χέρια σου/σας.

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Years 9 and 10  

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students have prior experience of learning Modern Greek and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts in which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider wo

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The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Modern Greek and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts in which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Modern Greek may feature in these.

Modern Greek language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration and vocabulary expansion and experimentation with different modes of communication. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Learners use Modern Greek to communicate and interact, access and exchange information, express feelings and opinions, and participate in imaginative and creative experiences. There is a balance between activities which focus on language forms and structures and those which emphasise communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise that deriving meaning from a different language involves interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, providing opportunities for collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Learners demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence forms of communication. They discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity, exploring in more depth the processes involved in learning and using a different language. They recognise the value of learning a second language and have a growing awareness of the interconnection between Australia and Greek-speaking communities in Australia and overseas.

Contexts of interaction

The language class remains the principal context for learning and using Modern Greek. Learners use spoken and written Modern Greek to interact with peers and the teacher in the classroom, and extend their interactions beyond the school setting through communication with Greek speakers in local contexts and online environments. They participate in wider experiences relating to Greek language and culture, such as film festivals and competitions, drama and art programs, Greek festivals, interacting with Greek-speaking guests, artists and musicians, and in-country study trips. These authentic experiences give learners a sense of connectedness and purpose, and make use of and extend their language capability beyond the school context.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of texts and resources, such as textbooks, videos, apps and online materials, media resources, fiction and non-fiction texts, and performances

Features of Modern Greek language use

Learners recognise and approximate the pronunciation, rhythms and intonation patterns of extended phrases and compound sentences. They use vocabulary with more complex syllable combinations and become more fluent and accurate in spoken and written language production. They gain greater control of grammatical elements, using a range of verb tenses to describe past (έπαιξα/έπαιζα), present (παίζω), future events (θα παίξω/θα παίζω), and experiences (ήταν καλά, πέρασα ωραία), a range of adverbs (χτες, μεθαύριο), adjectives to elaborate on meaning (πιο μεγάλος, μεγαλύτερος, ο πιο μεγάλος, Η Άννα είναι μεγαλύτερη από όλους μας), and cohesive devices to link and sequence actions, events and ideas (μετά, τότε, Θέλω να πάω στην Κύπρο και μετά να πάω στην Ελλάδα). They analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and meaning in a range of texts, and developing their understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication, how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on learners’ ways of thinking and behaving and how successful communication needs flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They consider their own cultural practices from the perspective of others and communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are needed to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes are modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as e-journals, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention on grammatical and textual features supports learners in the production of texts.

The role of English

Learners at this level increasingly use Modern Greek for classroom interactions and routines, and are able to express some complex concepts and reactions in Modern Greek, in structured discussions. English continues to be used as the medium for substantive discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection. This allows learners to express abstract and complex views and ideas about language, culture, intercultural experience and identity that may be beyond their existing ability in Modern Greek.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Initiate and sustain interactions by sharing personal opinions and experiences, face-to-face or online, with peers, and comparing aspects of young people’s lives, such as relationships, events and aspirations

[Key concepts: youth, relationships, future; Key processes: interacting, comparing, sharing]

Participate in collaborative planning and decision-making for events and shared experiences, and engage in different transactions

[Key concepts: roles, transactions, tasks; Key processes: negotiating, collaborating]

Participate in structured discussions and tasks by asking and responding to questions, clarifying understanding and expressing agreement or disagreement

[Key concepts: learning, contribution; Key processes: discussing, clarifying]


Obtain, analyse and use information from a range of spoken, written, digital and visual texts, identifying and comparing perspectives on social and cultural issues

[Key concepts: community, perspectives; Key processes: selecting, sharing, analysing]

Adapt and present information and ideas on a variety of topics using presentation modes selected to suit different audiences and to achieve specific purposes

[Key concepts: content, audience, mode; Key processes: selecting, designing, presenting]


Respond to imaginative texts by expressing personal preferences, feelings and opinions about themes, mood andchoices

[Key concepts: themes, imagination, social awareness; Key processes: expressing, modifying, responding, expressing]

Experiment with different techniques toand present imaginative texts designed to engage different audiences

[Key concepts: fantasy, private and public world, preferences; Key processes: creating, experimenting, connecting, reflecting]


Translate anda range of community and socialsuch as posters, advertisements and blogs, identifying and explaining words or expressions of specific cultural significance

[Key concepts: cultural understanding, representation, meaning; Key processes: translating, interpreting, analysing]

bilingual texts that draw on Greek and English for different purposes, such as menus or product instructions designed for bothcontexts

[Key concepts: interpretation, equivalence, bilingualism; Key processes: creating, translating, interpreting]


Interact with Greek speakers and resources, recognising that interculturalinvolves shared responsibility for communication

[Key concepts: interaction, reciprocity, responsibility; Key processes: expressing, discussing, noticing, adjusting]

Consider how culturalinfluences interactions in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts such as Australia

[Key concepts: identity, diversity; Key processes: analysing, discussing, reflecting]

Systems of language

Recognise and reproduce Greek sound–letter relationships and combinations in spoken and written forms and key features of pronunciation, rhythm and stress, including some irregularities

[Key concepts: liaisons, rhythm, intonation, pitch; Key processes: recognising, discriminating, imitating, producing]

Develop knowledge of vocabulary and sentence structures to elaborate meaning, for example, by using a range of verbs and tenses, personal pronouns, adverbs, adjectives and time indicators to describe, situate and link people, objects and events

[Key concepts: grammatical systems, connections; Key processes: experimenting, applying]

Compare and contrast the structure and linguistic features of different types of text, developing understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience, and identifying culturally specific elements

[Key concepts: genre, textual conventions, register; Key processes: exploring, connecting, comparing]

Language variation and change

Examine how Greekandis variously expressed in different linguistic and cultural settings, identifying and explaining variations

[Key concepts: change, place, impact; Key processes: exploring, comparing, analysing]

Understand how the Greekhas evolved, and how it continues to change over time due to processes such as globalisation, migration, and the influence of technology and popular culture

[Key concepts: evolution, influence, dynamism; Key processes: researching, analysing, discussing]

Role of language and culture

Explain how meanings may vary according to cultural assumptions and perspectives that people bring to interactions and experiences, recognising that such variations impact on intercultural communication

[Key concepts: stereotypes, social norms, values and attitudes; Key processes: analysing, explaining, reflecting]

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Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students initiate and sustain interactions with peers by sharing opinions and experiences and comparing aspects of teenage life (for example, Πού θα πας διακοπές; Θέλω να γίνω πιλότος γιατί ...). They interact with others to make decisions and plan events. They ask and respond to questions, clarify understanding and express agreement or disagreement in structured discussions and tasks, and spoken and written transactions (for example, Πάμε στο σινεμά αύριο; Συμφωνείς; Θέλω/Δε θέλω ). When interacting, they use appropriate pronunciation, rhythm and stress (for example, σ’ αυτόν, κοντά στην πόλη, Πάω στο ταχυδρομείο, Πάμε στη λαϊκή αύριο ;). Students locate and analyse information and perspectives from a range of texts and communicate information and ideas using different modes of presentation selected to suit audience and purpose (for example, Μου αρέσει αυτό το έργο γιατί ..., είναι ωραίο, πιστεύω, νομίζω, διαφωνώ ). They share their responses to imaginative texts by expressing personal preferences, feelings and opinions about themes, mood and language choices (for example, Η μόδα είναι μονότονη, Αγόρασα καινούριο κινητό ). They use different techniques to produce imaginative texts for different audiences. They use a range of grammatical structures and elements to describe, situate and link people, objects and events, and apply their knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical structures such as Είναι καλό, πολύ καλό, πάρα πολύ καλό, to extend meaning. They translate, interpret and create texts in Greek and English for the wider community (for example, Απαγορεύεται, Περαστικά). When interacting, students share responsibility for making meaning. They give examples on how their identity influences their intercultural exchanges.

Students identify and reproduce regularities and irregularities of sound–letter relationships and combinations such as, αυ, ευ, ββ, λλ, ρρ, ττ, ιου, ιο/ιό (for example, τετράδιο-χωριό ), ειο/ειου, αϊ, άι, -ασμα, (for example, διάβασμα ). They analyse a range of text types in various modes to explain the relationship between context, purpose and audience and to identify structural, linguistic and culturally specific features. They compare Greek language and culture in various linguistic and cultural settings in Australia and overseas, and give reasons for variations that exist. They identify ways that Greek language has changed over time and propose reasons why it continues to change. They explain how cultural assumptions, attitudes and beliefs can affect interactions and appreciate the importance of mutual understanding to effective communication.

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