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  • Overview
  • Korean Context Statement
  • Korean Years F–10 Sequence
  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students are beginning their study of Korean and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the

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The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Korean and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Korean. Students’ textual knowledge developed through English literacy learning supports the development of literacy in Korean. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider issues of how the experience impacts on the sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

Korean language learning and use

Learners use Korean in a range of classroom interactions and learning activities, communicating with the teacher and each other. They listen to, read, create and present texts on topics of interest including those drawn from other learning areas in different formats and modes, practising language forms and using modelled language with support from the teacher. Drawing on their literacy in their first language, learners understand that the Korean language is a linguistic and cultural system different from their own. They learn Hangeul, experimenting with syllable blocks and their pronunciations, and connecting sounds and letters in the Korean language. Literacy development in Korean at this stage enables learners to access and use texts in different modes and to explore and experiment with Korean with increasing independence. Students use familiar vocabulary and basic forms and structures including some honorific elements, recognising how communicating in Korean is different from communicating in their own language/s. They recognise that language use varies according to audiences, purposes and contexts, developing cultural knowledge and intercultural awareness. Through interactional routines where cultural appropriateness is embedded (for example, the teacher’s consistent use of the informal polite sentence ender –어/아요 for instruction), students learn how to establish cultural appropriateness through language. Students reflect on their experience as Korean language learners and users and explore how language and culture influence each other. They develop metalanguage for discussing aspects of Korean language and culture and for comparing them with those of English.

Contexts of interaction

The Korean classroom is the primary context for language and culture experience, with some access, both face-to-face and digital, to a broader Korean-speaking network in the school and in the community such as peers, teacher assistants or community members. ICT resources such as emails, online chats or wikis provide access to extra authentic experiences of Korean language and culture, connecting learners’ social worlds with those of Korean-speaking peers and the wider Korean community in Australia and worldwide. Learners may also access Korean-language events or resources in the community, such as inter-school activities, film festivals or cultural performances.

Texts and resources

Learners are engaged with a range of texts designed for language learning such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources including computer-based language learning materials, and authentic texts such as advertisements, greeting cards, songs, stories and notices, including those in digital form. Some authentic texts will be used for discussing and analysing cultural aspects and language use, for example, conversations, comic strips, excerpts from films (with subtitles) and television programs.

Features of Korean language use

Learners become familiar with the sounds of Korean and approximate pronunciation of Korean syllables in words and short phrases, noting meaningful sounds in Korean and their differences from English sounds. They are introduced to Hangeul, recognising its alphabetical nature and different shapes of vowel and consonant letters. They construct syllable blocks and combine them to write words, associating them with their corresponding spoken forms and noting the position of 받침 in syllable blocks. They become familiar with verb-final word order and use the –어/아요 ending at the end of sentence-final verbs recognising that it signals the end of a sentence with politeness embedded. They understand and apply basic elements of Korean grammar including major case markers and particles, informal polite verb endings, word order, pronouns, question words and descriptive and action verbs. They use a range of familiar vocabulary including numbers in two number systems with appropriate counters and infer meanings of some unfamiliar vocabulary from context. They recognise and use honorific elements in Korean grammar and vocabulary. They create their own texts consisting of short sentences in simple structures with some complex verb phrases introduced as set phrases. They understand meanings of culture-specific words or expressions and appropriately use basic expressions closely related to everyday life.

Level of support

Learning Korean as a new language at this level is supported by the provision of rich and varied language input in meaningful context. As the main source of target language input, the teacher of Korean provides a language- and culture-rich environment by giving ample language models and examples. Tasks are designed to be challenging but achievable independently or through pair or group work and to give students structured opportunities for practising and understanding the new language. Learners will need explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system and features in order to be able to discuss, clarify and analyse the language and to compare it with English. Continuous scaffolding and feedback from focus-on-form approach during interaction support learners to revise and monitor their language. Support material and resources include word lists, visual organisers, images, audio recordings and dictionaries (used with teacher support). Learners need regular opportunities to monitor and evaluate their language and culture learning.

The role of English

Learners are encouraged to use as much Korean as possible for classroom routines and interactions, structured learning tasks and language experimentation and practice. English is the main medium for instruction, discussion, explanation, comparison, analysis and reflection, but Korean may be used wherever it is possible to integrate language components students have acquired, for example, to get students’ attention, to signal transition of topics or to check understanding. Learners develop a metalanguage for thinking and talking about language, culture and identity, and about their experience of learning and using Korean.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions


Interact with peers and teachers, using appropriateand gestures to exchange greetings, wishes, and information about self, family and friends, routines, events, leisure activities, interests, likes and dislikes

[Key concepts: self, family, friendship, pastimes; Key processes: interacting, describing, expressing]

Participate in collaborative activities that involve planning, making arrangements, negotiating and transacting, using different modes of communication

[Key concepts: activity, politeness, cooperation; Key processes: planning and managing tasks, role-playing]

Engage in routine classroom interactions and activities, developingfor a range of basic classroom functions and processes

[Key concepts: instructions, roles, routines; Key processes: participating, interacting, responding]


Identify and classify factual information obtained from a range of spoken, written, digital and multimodal texts encountered in the media and in public spaces

[Key concepts: information, leisure, special occasions; Key processes: classifying, sequencing, comprehending]

Present ideas and information obtained from different sources in a variety of ways for a different audiences such as listing, tabulating, sequencing or charting information

[Key concepts: community, lifestyle, event; Key processes: describing, composing, informing, using multimedia presentation technology]


Participate in imaginative experiences by listening to, viewing and reading texts, including online or digital texts, such as songs, stories and cartoons, sharing feelings, responses and ideas about aspects such as characters, settings and plots/events

[Key concepts: plot, character, message; Key processes: identifying, relating, describing]

and perform a range of texts that express imagined experiences or events

[Key concepts: imagination, mode, genre; Key processes: creating, experimenting, presenting]


Translate simple idiomatic phrases and short texts such as labels, signs or short dialogues from Korean to English and vice versa, explaining perceived differences in meaning between the two versions

[Key concepts: equivalence; Key processes: translating, comparing, explaining]

bilingual texts that refer to experiences, objects or events commonly encountered in both Australian and Korean contexts, considering how easily words or expressions translate and why some are more difficult to translate than others

[Key concepts: audience, comprehensibility; Key processes: interpreting, comparing, explaining]


Engage with Korean speakers and resources in the school and wider community through various media, including online technologies, noticing how interaction involvesas well as language

[Key concepts: intercultural exchange, language, culture; Key processes: identifying, relating, describing]

Reflect on own identity, includingas a user and learner of Korean, comparing observations made about experiences over time

[Key concepts: self, profile, identity; Key processes: noticing, comparing, discussing]

Systems of language

Recognise features of the Korean sound and writing systems including Hangeul, making connections between spoken and written Korean texts

[Key concepts: sound discrimination, alphabetic system, syllable, syllable block, 받침; Key processes: identifying, distinguishing, relating]

Understand and use aspects of the Korean grammatical system to form simple sentence structures, and identify features that are either specific to Korean or similar to English

[Key concepts: grammatical rules, grammatical terminology, forms, functions, syntactic relationship, honorifics; Key processes: understanding, applying, comparing, explaining]

Recognise and use vocabulary relating to familiar environments and activities such as home, school, daily routines, leisure activities and cultural celebrations

[Key concepts: meaning, function, number systems, descriptive/ action verbs; Key processes: identifying, naming, describing, qualifying]

Recognise textual structures and features characteristic of familiar personal, informative and imaginative texts, noticing how they contribute to the making of particular meaning

[Key concepts: genre, audience, structure; Key processes: identifying, sequencing, comparing]

Language variation and change

Recognise that Koreanuse varies according to contexts, situations and relationships

[Key concepts: context, variation; Key processes: recognising, collecting, analysing]

Understand the dynamic nature of Korean and other languages

[Key concepts:contact, word- borrowing, globalisation; Key processes: observing, identifying, classifying]

Explore howuse and communicative practices can influence people’s lives, thoughts and perceptions

[Key concepts: perceptions, influence; Key processes: mapping, distinguishing, comparing]

Role of language and culture

Identify beliefs, attitudes and value systems reflected in their own everydayuse in English, other languages and Korean, comparing ways of communicating across cultures

[Key concepts: culture, language, interdependence; Key processes: identifying, analysing, making connections]

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Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use Korean to interact with each other and teachers in classroom routines and activities, exchanging greetings, wishes, experiences, interests and information. They approximate different sounds and intonation patterns of Korean during spoken interaction, and construct and combine Hangeul syllable blocks appropriately to write words and sentences. They greet each other using formulaic language (for example, 안녕하세요?; 만나서 반가워요; 안녕히 가세요/계세요 ) and exchange basic personal information. They ask and respond to simple questions using an –이에요/예요 or –어/아요 verb ending appropriately (for example, 13살이에요; 이것/저것이 뭐예요?; 뭐 (무엇을) 해요?; 수영해요 ). They maintain interaction by using formulaic expressions or set phrases to give simple feedback (for example, 알아요/ 몰라요, 네/아니요, 맞아요/틀려요 ) and to offer their own opinions (for example, 제 생각에는/으로는 ...이/가 맞아요 ). Students give and follow simple instructions such as 일어나세요 , 앉으세요 , ..., make simple arrangements (for example, 같이 가요, 언제 만나요? ) and engage in transactions such as making and responding to polite requests (for example, 아이스크림 주세요 ). They negotiate wishes and express possibility or capability using set phrases (such as ...–고 싶어요, ...–(으)ㄹ 수 있어요 ). Students use familiar vocabulary to describe familiar objects, people, pets, routines and contexts (such as 책, 사과, 빨간색, 아버지, 어머니, 고양이, 월요일, 화요일, ..., 주말, 학교, 집 ) and appropriate grammatical elements such as basic case markers and particles, for example, –은/는 , –이/가 , –을/를 , –에 , –에서 , –하고 and –(으)로 (as an instrumental case particle) in simple sentences. They describe present and past events (for example, 영화가 재미있어요; 영화가 재미있었어요 ) and express aspects of action or appearance in set phrases (such as ...–고 있어요, ... 같아요 ). They ask questions using a range of question words, and make negations by using 안/못 for common verbs and by replacing copula ...이에요/예요 with a set phrase ...이/가 아니예요 . They describe quality or state (for example, 좋아요, 예뻐요, 재미있어요/재미없어요, 커요/작아요, 맛있어요/맛없어요 ) and action (for example, 가요, 먹어요, 좋아해요, 공부해요 ), and use a suffix –었/았– for past events (for example, 갔어요 ). Students refer to themselves using different forms of first person pronouns (for example, 저, 제, 나, 내, 우리 ) appropriately and refer to objects using pronouns 이것 , 저것 or 그것 according to the context. They use some honorific words and suffixes as part of formulaic expressions (for example, 드세요, 선생님 ). They express numbers using pure Korean and Sino-Korean number systems, basic counters and Arabic numerals with appropriate pronunciation, in appropriate word order (for example, 사과 한 개, 학생 세 명, 12살, 8 학년 ). They create texts using modelled sentence structures, formulaic expressions and set phrases. They build text cohesion by using basic qualifying adverbs (such as 아주, 잘, 빨리, 같이 ), time adverbs (such as 어제, 오늘 ) and basic conjunctives (such as 그리고, 그러나 ) and by maintaining consistency in the use of polite verb endings and honorific elements. Students translate texts, predicting meanings by relying on knowledge of their first language, of textual features and of key words, including loan words from English. They create simple bilingual texts in different modes and formats, identifying culture-embedded language such as 우리 used in the context where it means ‘my’ in English (for example, 우리 집, 우리 선생님 ). They compare their experiences of learning and using Korean, identifying how the experience of learning Korean has broadened their intercultural perspectives and understanding of other cultures.

Students describe how Korean is used not only in Korea and in the Korean community in Australia but also in the global context. They explain how languages and cultures change through contact by giving examples of Korean words known and used in other languages, loan words in contemporary Korean borrowed from English, and words with similar meanings or pronunciation across languages such as Korean, Chinese, Japanese and some European languages. They demonstrate their understanding of the alphabetic nature of Hangeul by identifying consonant and vowel letters and explaining how to combine them to construct a syllable block and explain how Hangeul was created to correspond to the Korean sound system. Students explain basic features of Korean and English using metalanguage and applying their understanding of rules for writing Hangeul, for pronunciation, for grammar and for text organisation in Korean. They identify how politeness is expressed explicitly and systematically through grammar and vocabulary in Korean and describe how the level of politeness in speech style is determined by the age and social relationships of participants in interactions in Korean. They describe how the spoken and written forms of a language change over time for example, by differentiating between older and modern versions of Hangeul script. They demonstrate their understanding of the close relationship between language and culture by describing how Korean language reflects ways of thinking and behaving associated with Korean people and their lifestyles. They adjust their language use to suit situations and contexts and use non-verbal elements in culturally appropriate ways when using Korean.

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Years 9 and 10  

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students have prior experience of learning Korean and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider worl

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The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Korean and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Korean may feature in these.

Korean language learning and use

Learners use Korean with increasing confidence to communicate and interact, within familiar and some unfamiliar contexts. They access and exchange information, express feelings and opinions, participate in imaginative and creative experiences and basic transactions relating to everyday life, and compose, interpret and analyse texts in different formats and modes, drawing on their prior knowledge, personal experience and other curriculum areas. They write texts in Hangeul for different audiences and purposes, using modelled and rehearsed language, gradually gaining independence. They perform tasks that involve spoken and written Korean independently and in collaboration with peers, and access and interact with the virtual community of Korean speakers and learners worldwide. They are increasingly aware of the nature of language learning as a cultural, social and linguistic process, understand that language varies and changes, and engage in and reflect on intercultural experiences. They develop a metalanguage for comparing and contrasting aspects of language and culture. They reflect on their own linguistic and cultural practices from intercultural perspectives.

Contexts of interaction

The language classroom is the main context of interaction for learning and using Korean, involving interactions with teacher, peers, a wide range of texts and resources. Learners may interact with some additional people such as teacher assistants, exchange students, visitors to school or members of the wider community or peers in Korea encountered via communication technologies including some computer-mediated communication tools. They may also have opportunities to encounter Korean in wider contexts such as media, cultural or film festivals, community events or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and support materials such as textbooks, videos, media texts and online resources including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They have increasing exposure to authentic texts produced for Korean-speaking communities such as films, stories, songs, poems, newspaper articles, video clips, blogs and social media texts.

Features of Korean language use

Learners have an increasing control over Korean pronunciation, writing in Hangeul and using vocabulary, forms and structures, and textual features. They approximate the pronunciation at syllable boundaries applying relevant Korean pronunciation rules, and write polysyllabic words that include 받침 using correct spelling. Their vocabulary expands to some abstract and expressive words and those drawn from other learning areas. They use various grammatical forms and structures, including a range of particles and basic conjunctive suffixes, with suitable vocabulary, to suit their communicative needs, such as expressing and exchanging opinions, making transactions, or collaborating with others in different tasks. They recognise a range of more complex grammatical forms and structures used in texts and understand more complex relationships between ideas and events, using some of them as set phrases. They develop understanding of how language structures and features build up textural features in Korean texts. They become increasingly familiar with the use of honorific elements in Korean and other cultural practices accompanying language use, developing awareness of the interconnectedness of language and culture. They understand language varies according to the context, audience and purposes, recognising the importance of age and social relationship in language choice in Korean. They reflect on how language changes with social cultural changes, and on their own language use. They have increasing awareness of their identity as users of two or more languages and reflect on how their own sense of identity has developed and changed through intercultural experiences encountered while learning Korean language and culture.

Level of support

Learners need opportunities for more autonomy and responsibility in their own learning such as monitoring their own language performance, learning needs and progress. Continued support from the teacher is needed for their learning of Korean with these challenges. The teacher gives explicit instruction and explanations on complex grammar structures and culture-specific or abstract vocabulary. Scaffolding, implicit and sometimes explicit modelling and feedback are provided during interactions in task-based activities designed from form-focused approach. Learners continue to access online and print resources and dictionaries, and use online journaling, video documenting, and discussion forums for self-monitoring and reflecting.

The role of English

Learners use Korean for daily interaction, discussion and exchanges with the teacher and peers. English is used as the medium of some instruction, discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection on complex and abstract ideas. While Korean is encouraged to be increasingly used wherever possible in these domains, English is used as the medium where in-depth and detailed delivery appropriate to learners’ age and the level of cognitive demand are beyond their linguistic scope in Korean.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Initiate and sustain interactions to develop relationships with peers and adults, to exchange ideas, opinions and feelings and to reflect on own and others’ responses

[Key concepts: youth, relationship; Key processes: communicating, explaining, usingstrategies]

Contribute to collaborative planning, decision-making, problem-solving and transactions, providing ideas or suggestions and considering options

[Key concepts: contribution, prioritisation, alternatives; Key processes: discussing, negotiating, comparing]

Use classroomto participate in shared activities and everyday routines, such as asking for clarification and responding to others’ requests and questions

[Key concepts: mutual respect, task, participation; Key processes: discussing, clarifying]


Extract information from a range of short spoken, written, digital or multimodal texts in Korean, analysing and organising the information for particular audiences

[Key concepts: perspective, representation, concepts from other learning areas; Key processes: extracting, analysing, summarising, using computer-mediatedtools]

Convey ideas or viewpoints from different perspectives to various audiences in familiar contexts using different modes of presentation

[Key concepts: content, audience, mode; Key processes: selecting, constructing, presenting]


Respond to imaginative texts such as stories, films or illustrations, explaining messages and key ideas, stating views on themes, events and values, and making connections with own experiences

[Key concepts: themes, relationship, imagination; Key processes: comparing, interpreting, explaining]

imaginative texts that draw on past experiences or future possibilities for the purpose of self-expression andfor others

[Key concepts: culture, narrative, creativity, imagination; Key processes: creating, performing, entertaining]


Translate andinformative and imaginative texts for peers and the community, taking account of different audiences and contexts, identifying and explaining culture- specific aspects

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation, perspectives; Key processes: translating, interpreting, comparing, evaluating]

bilingual texts for the wider community, such as notices, instructions, promotional material, performances or announcements, considering cultural aspects of each language

[Key concepts: interpretation, bilingualism; Key processes: interpreting, composing, explaining]


Interact with Korean speakers and resources, recognising that interculturalinvolves shared responsibility for meaning-making

[Key concepts: norms, commitment, reciprocity; Key processes: questioning assumptions, adjusting, reflecting]

Reflect on ownand on how it is affected by the experience of Koreanlearning

[Key concepts: identity, values, judgment; Key processes: observing, reflecting, explaining]

Systems of language

Understand and use key features of Korean sound and writing systems, including pronunciation,and print conventions, applying this understanding to own speech and writing

[Key concepts: pronunciation, spelling, punctuation, correspondence; Key processes: recognising, analysing, relating, experimenting]

Extend grammatical knowledge of Korean language, including the range of forms and functions of particles, suffixes,endings and irregularforms

[Key concepts: grammatical structures, modality, irregularity; Key processes: analysing, classifying, applying, explaining]

Understand and use a range of vocabulary associated with different aspects of everyday life, such as basicor humble words, and identify culture-embedded words and expressions

[Key concepts: honorification, idioms, terminology, culture; Key processes: specifying, predicting, applying]

Analyse and compose different types of texts, considering issues such as coherence, cohesion, and the relationship between textual conventions and audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: coherence, cohesion, textual conventions; Key processes: analysing, explaining, composing]

Language variation and change

Explore how Korean is used in varying ways for different purposes and audiences in different social and cultural contexts and situations by comparing different registers and styles used in texts in different modes

[Key concepts: formality, register,modes; Key processes: observing, analysing, relating, comparing]

Explore and reflect on the nature ofchange in response to changing cultural and social conditions

[Key concepts: globalisation, social conditions, intercultural contact, popular culture; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, explaining]

Understand the symbolic nature and power ofin local and global contexts

[Key concepts: culture, power, symbolism; Key processes: exploring issues, analysing, discussing]

Role of language and culture

Analyse and comment on cultural and linguistic practices indifferent contexts and reflect on own and others’ communicative practices

[Key concepts: norm, value system, intercultural understanding; Key processes: analysing, reflecting, critical thinking]

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Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Korean to interact with peers, teachers and other Korean speakers in face-to-face, local and virtual communications. They exchange information and opinions about personal and immediate interests and experiences and about broader topics of interest to young people such as environmental issues, globalisation or technology. They approximate pronunciation of polysyllabic words, making mostly appropriate changes in sounds on syllable boundaries (for example, pronouncing such words as 한국어, 같이, 감사합니다, 먹고 and 어떻게 as 항구거, 가치, 감사함니다, 먹꼬 and 어떠케).They write Hangeul following writing conventions. Students initiate conversations (for example, 지금 뭐 해요? 어디 가요?), and sustain interactions by asking and responding to each other and building on each other’s responses (for example, 주말에 시간 있어요? 네, 토요일 오후에 시간 있어요. 토요일 아침에 뭐 해요? 아홉 시부터 열 두 시까지 운동해요, …). They use appropriate facial expressions and gestures. They express understanding (for example, 알겠어요; 모르겠어요), request clarification (for example, 무슨 뜻이에요? 다시 설명해 주세요), ask for opinions (for example, 어떻게 생각해요?) and provide their own opinions using reflective language as set phrases (for example, 글쎄요, 아마 ..., 제 생각에는 …, …–(으)ㄴ/는 것 같아요). They ask for and make suggestions (for example, 무엇을 할까요? 해 보세요). Students analyse and extract information from different print, digital and multimodal sources, drawing on the context to help comprehension and using their knowledge of vocabulary, grammatical forms and structures relating to time, location, cases, honorifics, basic sentence types and text formats. They create and present informative and imaginative texts in different formats and in different modes, expressing experiences and views for different purposes and audiences. They use a range of particles for various functions and modify a noun using an adjectival form of a descriptive verb suffixed by –(으)ㄴ (for example, 예쁜 꽃). They use some irregular verbs (such as 들어요, 추워요) and verb phrases in complex structures as set phrases to express provision (for example,읽어 주세요), prohibition (for example, 쓰지 마세요), trial (for example, 입어 보세요) and ideas or events relating to the future (for example, 갈 거예요, 할까요?). They express two ideas or events in different relationships using conjuinctors such as –어/아서, –고, –(으)면 or –지만 as appropriate to connect clauses. Students make comparisons using –보다 더 … (for example, 오늘이 어제보다 더 추워요) and express time duration using … 때/동안 (for example, 방학 때, 일 년 동안). They express the relative frequency of events using adverbs such as 가끔, 보통, 자주, 언제나 and the relative locations of objects/people using location words (such as 앞, 뒤, 위, 아래, 옆) in a formula: a noun + a location word + (for example, 식탁 위에). They refer to self using either or appropriately according to the context. They use some basic conjunctive adverbs such as 그래서, 그런데, 그렇지만 and 하지만 to establish cohesion in texts. Students translate and create simple bilingual texts across Korean and English, comparing different versions, identifying reasons for different interpretations and ways to retain and convey original meanings in translated texts. They recount their reactions to intercultural experiences and exemplify how their personal experiences and assumptions influence their language use and perspectives.

Students explain how language use is adjusted to different purposes and audiences in different contexts and situations by providing examples from differing spoken and written forms of Korean. They compare situations where it is or is not appropriate to use 반말 and other features of language such as text messaging or colloquial forms of expression in Korean, English or other known languages. They describe how languages change over time and through contact with other languages and cultures by identifying possible examples of such change in Korean and other languages. They relate grammatical elements in Korean such as case markers, particles, suffixes, and verb endings to their grammatical functions by explaining them using metalanguage (case, politeness, honorification, 반말, 높임말 , native Korean/Sino-Korean). Students explain how cultural values and ideas are embedded in language use, including their own, and identify how language reflects ways of thinking, views of the world and everyday cultural routines, drawing on examples from Korean, English and other languages.

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