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  • Overview
  • Japanese Context Statement
  • Japanese Years F–10 Sequence
  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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    Year Levels Band Descriptions
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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students are beginning their study of Japanese and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated culture. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, while some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness

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The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Japanese and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated culture. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, while some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Japanese. Students’ textual knowledge developed through English literacy learning supports the development of literacy in Japanese. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider issues of how the experience impacts on their sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

Japanese language learning and use

Students are encouraged to speak, listen to, read and write Japanese in a range of interactions with the teacher and one another. They use modelled and rehearsed language and gestures in familiar contexts and begin to use learnt language to express their personal meaning. They experiment with sounds and use high-frequency words and expressions, gradually broadening their range of vocabulary and language functions. They develop knowledge of Japanese word order and of grammatical features such as particles, adjectives, verb tenses and politeness forms. They apply this knowledge in simple oral and written texts such as self-introductions and statements relating to themselves and their personal worlds. They become aware of the systematic nature of Japanese grammar and of its importance in conveying meaning. They develop metalanguage to talk about Japanese grammar and to make comparisons and connections with their own language(s).

Students are exposed to all three scripts, hiragana, katakana and kanji, and develop a working knowledge of how these are used to create meaning. They develop proficiency in reading and writing hiragana and use high-frequency katakana and kanji to read and write words and sentences. They work collaboratively and independently, exploring a variety of simple texts with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests.

Students read, view and listen to a range of texts, and apply modelled language to create and present their own texts. They share grammatical knowledge and language resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They begin to use vocabulary and grammar accurately, drafting and editing texts to improve structure and to clarify meaning. They develop linguistic and cultural awareness through analysing texts, comparing languages, and applying their knowledge in language exercises and tasks.

Learners use a range of processes such as observing, comparing and reflecting on language use to identify how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine how people, issues and circumstances are represented. They reflect on intercultural perspectives and on their experience of intercultural communication, exploring aspects of environment, lifestyle and social practices associated with Japanese culture and making comparisons with their own. They develop metalanguage for discussing the nature of language and culture, and monitor and reflect on their language and culture learning through discussion, journalling or contributing to shared digital spaces.

Contexts of interaction

Japanese is used by the teacher and learners in classroom routines, structured interactions and learning tasks. Opportunities for interaction in Japanese are also provided through a range of resources and materials. There may be interaction beyond the classroom with guests or members of Japanese-speaking communities or via digital technology or student exchanges.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of resources designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. They read, view and interact with a variety of spoken, written and digital texts created for different purposes (social, informative, transactional, imaginative and expressive). Authentic texts such as advertisements, commercials, film excerpts or recorded conversations provide opportunities for discussion and analysis of the relationship between language, communication and culture.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners become familiar with the sounds and patterns of spoken Japanese, including pronunciation, rhythm and intonation. They identify words borrowed from English, noting differences in pronunciation and spelling. They use Japanese in classroom interactions and short communicative tasks. They participate in scaffolded activities to exchange information and complete transactions. They listen to and read texts to obtain specific details or to understand gist. Learners understand and apply rules/patterns applying to elements of Japanese grammar such as word order, simple verb forms, nouns, adjectives and particles. They understand that language is organised as text, and that texts use different structures and language features to achieve different purposes. They use modelled examples and apply knowledge of language features to create texts for different purposes, such as informative, personal or descriptive. Students develop an awareness of different cultural perspectives. They identify words, phrases and behaviours that convey Japanese traditions and values such as politeness and humility and use these appropriately.

Level of support

Learning at this level is supported by rich and varied language input and the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable. Opportunities to review and consolidate learning are balanced against provision of engaging and relevant new experiences and connections. Learners rely on teacher talk, instruction, modelling, feedback, and structured opportunities for practising and understanding new language. They are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users. Support resources include word lists and dictionaries, visual organisers, images and gestures. Learners collaborate with peers in structured pair and group tasks that have clear roles and expectations.

The role of English

English serves two main functions in the Japanese class: it represents a point of reference for learning the new language by enabling students to compare structures, features and cultural meanings in each language, and it is used when appropriate for explanation, reflection and discussion.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions


Interact with peers and the teacher to socialise and to exchange information about self, personal worlds and immediate environment, and to express feelings, likes and dislikes, using appropriate gestures

[Key concepts: self, family, home, interests; Key processes: interacting, describing, expressing]

Engage in transactions and collaborative activities that involve planning and making arrangements, such as obtaining goods and organising performances

[Key concepts: tasks, transactions, collaboration; Key processes: planning, making arrangements, purchasing, performing, participating]

Interact in classroom routines and exchanges such as asking and responding to questions, requesting help, repetition or permission, following instructions, or giving praise and encouragement

[Key concepts: roles, routines, interaction patterns; Key processes: responding, requesting, apologising, thanking]


Locate key points of information in a range of texts and resources and use the information in new ways

[Key concepts: information, data, culture; Key processes: researching, classifying, interpreting, presenting]

Present factual information about aspects of Japanese and Australian lifestyles in spoken, written and digital forms

[Key concepts: community, cultural practice, personal world; Key processes: composing, designing, presenting, reporting, comparing]


Listen to,and view texts such as folk stories, video clips and television commercials, share reactions and describe aspects such asand contexts

[Key concepts: imagination, fantasy, character, effects, values; Key processes: responding, reflecting, creating, comparing]

Reinterpret orand perform imaginative texts such as video clips, raps or skits using modelledand supporting resources

[Key concepts: adaptation, mode, performance, intercultural experience; Key processes: creating, interpreting, expressing, performing]


Translate andshort texts such as self-introductions or conversations, noticing and explaining aspects that are similar or different in Japanese and English versions

[Key concepts: meaning, translation, equivalence, context; Key processes: translating, interpreting, comparing, explaining]

simple bilingual texts and resources such as learning support materials, menus, brochures, signs, digital presentations, displays and captions

[Key concepts: bilingualism, equivalence, context, meaning; Key processes: translating, reasoning, explaining]


Reflect on the experience of learning and using Japanese in different contexts, commenting on similarities to and differences from their own usualuse and behaviour

[Key concepts: intercultural experience, cultural frames, response; Key processes: identifying, reflecting, expressing]

Collate and present information in print, digital or online formats about self and peers to share with others, and notice own and one another’s ways of expressing identity

[Key concepts: self-expression, identity, community, communication; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, identifying]

Systems of language

Recognise and use features of the Japanese sound system, including pitch, accent, rhythm and intonation

[Key concepts: mora, pitch, rhythm, intonation; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, recognising]

Recognise and understand the relationship between the character-based scripts of hiragana, katakana and kanji

[Key concepts: script, kana, kanji, hiragana, katakana, furigana, stroke order, pictograph; Key processes: recognising, copying, applying, distinguishing]

Develop understanding of the systematic nature of grammatical structures and features of Japanese used to perform particular functions, such as describing people, objects and places, and indicating quantity

[Key concepts: grammar, vocabulary, syntax, metalanguage; Key processes: recognising, describing, indicating, comparing]

Identify textual conventions of familiar spoken, written and multimodal types of texts

[Key concepts: text, genre, mode, tenor, audience; Key processes: identifying, sequencing, comparing]

Language variation and change

Understand that Japaneseuse varies according to theand situation of the interaction and the relationship between participants

[Key concepts: variation, context, relationship; Key processes: identifying, distinguishing, analysing]

Understand that the Japaneseboth influences and is influenced by other languages and cultures

[Key concepts:change, intercultural contact, loan words; Key processes: identifying, reflecting, making connections]

Role of language and culture

Explore connections between languages and cultures as exemplified in particular words, expressions and communicative behaviours, noticing how meaning can be culture-specific and difficult to transfer between languages

[Key concepts: culture, language, values, meaning; Key processes: analysing, explaining, comparing]

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Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students interact with one another and the teacher in classroom routines and activities, exchanging greetings, wishes and information about their personal and social worlds. They use gestures and formulaic expressions appropriately, for example, おくれて すみません。しつれいします。 They comprehend and respond to familiar questions, such as だれ、 何 ( なに ) 、 どこ、 いつ、 何 ( なん ) よう 日 ( び ) 、 どんな、 and instructions, such as たって ください。三人の グループに なって ください。、 using rehearsed and some spontaneous language. They ask for assistance and clarification, for example, ~は 何 ですか。十四ページ ですね。 . They pronounce voiced and unvoiced sounds, long vowels, blends, double consonants and high-frequency loan words with developing rhythm and intonation. They read and write texts in hiragana and katakana, with some kanji for numbers, days of the week and high-frequency nouns, adjectives and verbs, such as 人、 先生 ( せんせい ) 、 日本 ( にほん ) 、 大 ( おお ) きい、 小 ( ちい ) さい、 友 ( とも ) だち、 行 ( い ) きます、 食 ( た ) べます . Students identify key points of information in short predictable written, spoken and multimodal texts, understanding descriptions of people, objects, places and activities. They use non-verbal, visual and contextual cues to assist in making meaning. Students use rehearsed language related to their personal world to convey information in both written and spoken texts. They produce short sentences involving nouns, verbs (for example, 何を しますか 。ゲームを します。 ), common counter classifiers (for example, ~人、 ~ひき、 ~さい ), and adjective, noun and verb predicates. They apply correct stroke order to all characters, and use appropriate punctuation and textual features in texts such as captions, greeting cards, profiles, emails or timelines. They structure sentences using correct word order, and link information using conjunctions such as そして and それから . They translate and interpret short spoken texts, explaining Japanese gestures and expressions that do not readily translate into English, for example, はじめまして、どうぞよろしく。 . They adjust their language to suit different contexts and situations, for example, the use of appropriate titles and forms of address, and respond in culturally appropriate ways to interactions with other Japanese speakers, such as bowing when greeting, and using appropriate eye contact.

Students recognise the nature and roles of the three Japanese scripts, understanding that hiragana represents the basic unit of Japanese sound, kanji represents meaning, and katakana is used for borrowed words. They use the hiragana and katakana chart as a tool when writing and reading, recognising their systematic nature. They know that hiragana and katakana are pronounced identically and that the pronunciation of borrowed words is determined by the Japanese sound system. Students understand and apply grammatical concepts such as the use of particles, for example, の、 へ、 に、 で、 と、 も、 が、 は、 を、 か、 よ、 and conjugation of present, past, positive and negative forms of verbs. They understand and use い and な adjectives, and apply the rules of counter classifiers such as ~人、~ 月 ( がつ ) 、 ~ひき / びき / ぴき . They explain how language and behaviour change according to participants, context and relationship, and that politeness and respect are expressed explicitly in Japanese through greetings, vocabulary, formulaic expressions and actions. They understand that languages and cultures change over time, and provide examples of how languages borrow words from one another. Students make connections and comparisons between elements of the Japanese language and culture and their own, identifying how languages reflect ways of thinking and behaving. They identify how Japanese values such as humility and harmony are reflected in language, such as by deflecting praise, for example, じょうず ですね。

いいえ。、 softening responses with expressions such asちょっと or あんまり、 and using indirect forms of refusal or disagreement.

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Years 9 and 10  

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students have prior experience of learning Japanese and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider wo

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The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Japanese and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures, and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Japanese may feature in these.

Japanese language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration and vocabulary expansion, and of experimentation with different modes of communication, collaborative performance and guided group discussion. Increasing control of language structures and systems builds confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Students use Japanese in classroom interactions and activities, to communicate and interact, to access and exchange information, to express feelings and opinions, to participate in imaginative and creative experiences, and to design, interpret and analyse a range of texts. They use a wide range of formulaic expressions that are essential for everyday Japanese interactions. They use an increasing range of culturally appropriate gestures and behaviours, with a greater degree of self-correction, spontaneity and repair. They monitor their own language use in relation to cultural context, situation, purpose and audience. They develop a greater understanding of Japanese cultural norms, for example, in relation to responding to praise, communicating refusal, or the use of eye contact. Students initiate and sustain interactions with other speakers of Japanese in spoken and written modes. They use familiar language patterns as a foundation for generating increasingly original language in the contexts of their physical and social environments. They develop broader knowledge of vocabulary and grammar to produce more sophisticated language for a variety of audiences.

Students build on their mastery of hiragana and katakana and understand sound variation in the pronunciation of borrowed words. They use a greater number of kanji and increasingly apply their understanding of known kanji to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words.

They explore and produce a range of texts associated with different contexts, and analyse information and concepts relevant to their social, cultural and communicative interests. They read, view and interact with texts for a variety of purposes, for example, social, informative, transactional, imaginative, expressive and instructional. They draw on modelled examples to understand and use more complex structures. They engage in drafting and editing their texts to clarify meaning.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use written and spoken Japanese to interact with peers, teachers and other speakers of the language in immediate and local contexts, and may also interact with other Japanese speakers through online environments.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and supporting materials, such as textbooks, modified and authentic texts, film/video clips, media texts and online materials. They also draw increasingly on texts produced for young people in Japan, such as short stories, songs, poems, films, video clips, blogs and social media texts.

Features of Japanese language use

Students become more fluent and accurate in both spoken and written language production. They gain more control of grammatical and textual elements. They use expressive and descriptive language to discuss feelings, opinions and experiences. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence forms of communication. They develop understanding of the nature of both translation and interpretation, noticing the relationship between language, texts and culture. They understand that many Japanese phrases convey values and beliefs that underpin Japanese culture and cannot be translated into English. A balance is maintained between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that involve communicative tasks, performance and experiences. Tasks involve collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Learners analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning. At this level, learners are developing understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity. They identify how meaning-making and representation in a different language involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on the learner’s ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to consider their own cultural practices through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Learners draw from authentic and modified resources to apply their developing linguistic and cultural understandings. They compare, analyse and reflect on their understandings of Japanese language and culture and of their own language(s) and culture(s), and question their preconceived ideas about Western and Japanese values. They continue to build metalanguage to think and communicate about Japanese and about their own language(s) and culture(s), using English to discuss their experience of language learning. Students identify aspects of culture embedded in Japanese words, expressions and behaviours, and recognise contexts in which particular values are expressed for different purposes and audiences.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners are provided with new challenges and engage in more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring support these challenges. Students are encouraged to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in different contexts. They analyse and reflect on texts and intercultural experiences through discussion, documenting and journaling. Continued focused attention on grammatical and textual features supports learners’ development as text producers.

The role of English

Japanese is used in more extended and complex ways by both learners and teachers. English is used for substantive discussion, elaboration, comparison, analysis and reflection.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Initiate and sustain interactions to share experiences, personal opinions, aspirations, thoughts and feelings and to discuss aspects of young people’s experience

[Key concepts: discussion, social experience, popular culture, views; Key processes: interacting, responding, comparing, expressing opinions]

Participate in activities that involve transacting, negotiating, planning and participating in events and experiences

[Key concepts: social exchange, transaction, negotiation; Key processes: planning, transacting, making decisions, performing]

Develop classroomto participate in interactions such as clarifying, apologising, showing appreciation, complimenting, and reflecting on their learning experiences

[Key concepts: discussion, reflection, interaction; Key processes: requesting, responding, clarifying, enquiring]


Access ideas and information from a range of spoken, print and multimodal texts, compare views, state opinions, and present information in different formats to inform or interest others

[Key concepts: information, representation, modality, audience; Key processes: reviewing, recording, summarising, comparing]

Convey factual information, ideas and opinions using different modes of presentation that take account of context, purpose and audience

[Key concepts: text, context, mode, audience; Key processes: selecting, editing, presenting]


Listen to,and view a range of imaginative texts in multimodal formats, such as anime, manga or J-pop, describe settings, identify key ideas and events, give opinions and analyse cultural content

[Key concepts: character, theme, expression; Key processes: reviewing, responding, adapting, comparing]

own or shared texts in different modes and formats to inform or entertain others, or express ideas, attitudes and perspectives, using imaginary characters, places and experiences

[Key concepts: fantasy, entertainment, expression; Key processes: imagining, creating, performing]


Translate familiar social and community texts, such as emails, chat room posts, public signs and notices, from Japanese into English and vice versa, considering the role ofwhen transferring meaning from oneto another

[Key concepts: culture, translation, equivalence, meaning; Key processes: comparing, analysing, critical and cultural reading]

print, digital and multimodal bilingual resources for the school and wider community, such as notices and instructions, announcements, promotional material and invitations

[Key concepts: bilingual text, representation, interpretation; Key processes: composing, selecting, translating, glossing]


Participate in intercultural interactions, recognising how their own cultural norms impact onuse and that interculturalinvolves shared responsibility for meaning-making

[Key concepts: frames, norms, reciprocity, reflection; Key processes: comparing, analysing]

Reflect on own identity, including theiras a learner and user of Japanese, through connecting observations of experience over time

[Key concepts: identity, perspective, change; Key processes: reviewing, presenting, reflecting]

Systems of language

Understand theand phrasing patterns of spoken Japanese; and recognise that most kanji have more than one ‘reading’ and that thechanges according to kanji compounds

[Key concepts: phonetic changes,patterns, pacing; Key processes: distinguishing, vocalising]

Convey meaning by appropriately selecting and combining hiragana, katakana and kanji characters, and use understanding of kanji to predict meaning of unfamiliar words

[Key concepts:forms and functions, meaning; Key processes: decoding, identifying, prediction]

Understand the systematic nature of Japaneseand grammatical forms, and explore how to use/combine these elements to express complex ideas

[Key concepts: syntax,conjugation, cohesion, classifiers; Key processes: describing, identifying, classifying, applying]

Use a range of textual conventions in spoken, written and multimodal texts, and understand how different scripts are used to convey meaning or effects

[Key concepts: text, mode, scripts; Key processes: composing, selecting, analysing, explaining]

Language variation and change

Recognise variations inuse that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships

[Key concepts: register, tenor, context, culture; Key processes: analysing, exemplifying, comparing]

Understand that the Japanesehas evolved and developed through different periods of influence and cultural and societal change

[Key concepts:change, intercultural contact, popular culture; Key processes: reflecting, identifying, comparing]

Role of language and culture

Recognise and explain how the Japanesecarries embedded cultural information, such as the prioritising of collective well-being, respect and harmony

[Key concepts: language, culture, intercultural experience; Key processes: analysing, reflecting, reciprocating]

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Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Japanese to interact with peers, the teacher and other Japanese speakers to exchange information and opinions about personal interests and experiences. With support they share information about broader topics of interest, such as education, travel, sport, teenage life and popular culture. When collaborating in shared tasks and activities, they use set phrases and modelled language to transact and make arrangements, for example, 来週(らいしゅう)の土曜日にサッカーをしませんか。土曜日はちょっと Students ask and respond to questions, such as どのぐらい、いくつ、 using spontaneous language. They provide explanations, opinions and reasons, for example, by using ~と思います、 ~からです . They maintain and extend interactions by requesting repetition or clarification and by using あいづち . They apply appropriate conventions of pronunciation, rhythm and phrasing in speech to allow for others’ use of あいづち . Students read and write hiragana and known kanji, read katakana, and write familiar katakana words, including elongated vowels, double consonants and contractions. They analyse and extract information from a range of spoken and written texts and multimodal sources. They understand gist and predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and expressions from context, grammatical and vocabulary knowledge. Students create and present informative and imaginative texts, taking into account audience and purpose, such as by using て form ( ~てはいけません、~てもいいです、 ~ています ), and the plain form ( ~たり~たりします、 ~と思います、~つもり ). They extend or qualify their message by using adverbs such as とくに、 時々 ( ときどき ) 、 and link ideas by using conjunctions, such as それに、 だから、 けれども . Students translate and interpret texts, explaining words and expressions that are difficult to translate and those with embedded cultural meanings, such as ただいま , おかえり . They describe their reactions to intercultural experiences and reflect on how their own assumptions and identity influence and are influenced by their language use.

Students identify the functions of different scripts within texts: how hiragana is used for particles, conjunctions, and verb and adjective endings; katakana for borrowed words and some onomatopoeia; and kanji for nouns and verb and adjective stems. They apply their understanding of kanji to identify word boundaries and know its role in assisting with the identification of linguistic elements. They distinguish between おくりがな and ふりがな、 and recognise that kanji can be pronounced differently using 音 (on) or 訓 (kun) readings. Students understand the function of verb stems, and of て form and plain form verbs, and conjugate a range of verb tenses and forms. They apply their understanding of conjugation to produce negative and past adjectives. Students identify and use a range of case particles such as か (or), より、 で (purpose/by) and に (location). They use metalanguage to describe and compare language features and rules of sentence construction. They choose between using です / ます or plain form based on age, relationship, familiarity, context and text type, such as using plain form in a personal diary. They understand that languages change over time through contact with other languages and cultures, and identify the particular impact of technology and media on contemporary forms of communication, for example, the widespread adoption of English terms into Japanese, such as コピペ . Students explain how Japanese cultural values such as the importance of community, (うち)/(そと) respect, and consideration for others are embedded in language and behaviours such as がんばりましょう。 だいじょうぶ?。

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