Indonesian

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  • Indonesian Context Statement
  • Indonesian Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2  

Foundation to Year 2 Description

The nature of the learners Children enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, sh

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The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically they have little to no experience of Indonesian language and culture.

Indonesian language learning and use

In these years there is an emphasis on developing learners’ oral language to enable them to participate in class activities such as shared reading, chants, rhymes, songs and games. They repeat sounds, particularly of vowels, the letter c (ch) and r (trilled), as modelled by the teacher and aural texts. Learners use formulaic language and single-idea phrases. They will recognise the same alphabet as they are learning for writing English and need to observe that some letters have different sounds (for example, c = ch). Learners write by tracing and copying, forming letters legibly. They learn to write words and sentences independently using modelled language, for example, matching pictures with single words, labels and captions.

Contexts of interaction

The primary context for interaction is the language classroom, with the teacher of Indonesian, and peers or buddy classmates. Learners’ use of Indonesian primarily relates to classroom routines and activities, drawing on their curiosity about the world around them and their interest in play, movement and games.

Texts and resources

Written texts include children’s stories and big books, and teacher-generated materials such as pictures with labels and descriptions. Learners listen to, read and view texts, including digital forms such as videos, songs and children’s programs. They respond to teacher generated resources such as cloze, substitution or matching exercises, and produce texts such as captions and recounts using formulaic language, for example, Pada hari…, saya

Features of Indonesian language use

Students are learning the sounds and written form of Indonesian. They are noticing similarities and differences between Indonesian and English, such as similar vocabulary and word order and differences in the position of adjectives and possessive pronouns Learners ask questions in English about Indonesia and Indonesians. With teacher support, they discuss language and culture in terms of what is the same or different and compare with ‘what is said and done’ in their own language and culture.

Level of support

Support is provided through visual and tactile materials, such as pictures, realia, objects and charts, and the use of gesture and movement. The main source of support is the teacher’s talk, such as questions and statements, explanations, prompts, recycling of language, stories and feedback. Learners rely on modelled language and scaffolded tasks to create their own texts, for example, choosing words to complete sentences or using pictures to sequence captions.

The role of English

Indonesian is used in class interactions and daily routines such as opening and closing of lessons. Indonesian is used by the teacher to model new language, process texts and guide interaction, for example, Ini siapa?, Di mana Hasan? English is used when describing aspects of language and culture such as word order and cultural practices.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Participate in structured play and class activities, exchanging with peers and teacher greetings and information about self, family and interests

[Key concepts: self, family; Key processes: playing, imitating]


Participate in guided group activities such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement, gesture and pictures to support meaning

[Key concept: play; Key processes: singing, chanting, drawing]


Participate with teacher and peers in class routines and activities, including following instructions and taking turns

[Key concepts: routine, sharing; Key processes: shared reading, following instructions]

Informing

Locate specific words and familiar phrases in texts such as charts, lists and songs, and use information to complete guided oral and written tasks

[Key concepts: literacy, numeracy; Key processes: selecting, sorting, matching]


Give factual information about self, family and significant objects using labels, captions and descriptions

[Key concepts: self, favourite; Key processes: describing, showing]

Creating

Participate in shared reading and play-acting, and respond through singing, chanting, action and movement

[Key concepts: character, story; Key processes: playing, choral reading; Keytypes: fairy tale, fable, comic, cartoon, song, rhyme]


Use familiar words, phrases and patterns tocaptions and participate in shared performances and games

[Key concept: performance; Key processes: performing, singing, dancing; Keytypes: chant, song, poster, puppet show]

Translating

Translate familiar words and phrases, using visualand word lists, noticing how words may have similar or different meanings

[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key process: noticing]


captions, labels and statements for the immediate learning environment in both Indonesian and English

[Key concepts: etiquette, respect, equivalence; Key processes: labelling, displaying]

Reflecting

Notice what may look or feel similar or different to ownandwhen interacting in Indonesian

[Key concepts: communication, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing]


Describe aspects of self such as family, school/class, gender and language/s, noticing how these are part of one’s identity

[Key concept: self; Key processes: describing, noticing]

Understanding
Systems of language

Reproduce the sound and spelling of the vowels and the letters c (ch) and trilled r, and recognise that Indonesian is written using the Roman alphabet

[Key concept: pronunciation; Key processes: reading aloud, mimicking]


Recognise questions, commands and simple subject-focus sentences, and develop vocabulary for people, places and things in their personal world

[Key concepts: possession, word order; Key processes: naming, noticing patterns]


Understand thatis organised as ‘text’, and recognise features of texts such as songs, chants, labels and captions

[Key concept: text; Key processes: recognising, identifying]

Language variation and change

Recognise that ways of greeting and addressing others may change according to cultural norms

[Key concepts: appropriateness, respect; Key processes: noticing, selecting]


Develop awareness that Indonesian and English borrow from each other.

[Key concept: borrowing; Key process: observing]

Role of language and culture

Notice that the languages people use and the way they use them relate to who they are and where and how they live.

[Key concepts: norm, culture; Key process: making connections]

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Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with teachers and peers through play- and action-related language. They use greetings such as Selamat pagi/siang and respond to instructions such as Berdirilah, Masuklah through actions. Students pronounce the vowel sounds, and c (ch). They respond to questions (for example Apa? Siapa? Berapa? ) with responses that include ya/tidak , verbs such as ada/mau/suka/bisa/boleh , and/or names and numbers (up to ten). They identify specific words or items in oral and written texts such as names of objects and people, and respond by using actions or drawing or labelling a picture. They present factual information at word and simple sentence level, such as lists, labels, descriptions and sharing/news reports, relying on formulaic language and modelled examples. They show comprehension and create simple texts such as a description, story or comic by matching pictures and captions. They use vocabulary related to their class and home environments. Students use simple verbs such as lari, main, makan and use the pronouns saya, kamu and Pak/Bu to address others. Students comment on similarities and differences in meanings of words, noticing that some cannot be readily translated, for example, takraw. They comment on aspects of using Indonesian and express feelings about learning Indonesian.

Students know that Indonesian is written using the same alphabet as English but that some sounds are different. They know that they communicate in English (and possibly other languages) and that Indonesian is spoken in a country called Indonesia. They identify Indonesian words that are similar to English, for example, buku, komputer and es krim . Students identify some distinctive Indonesian words such as komodo, durian and kancil. They know that language and culture are related.

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Years 3 and 4  

Years 3 and 4 Description

The nature of the learners At this level, children are developing awareness of their social world and memberships of various groups, including of the Indonesian class. They have developed initial literacy in English, and this assists to some degree in learning Indonesian, such as writing in the Roman alphabet. They benefit from varied, activity-based l

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The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social world and memberships of various groups, including of the Indonesian class. They have developed initial literacy in English, and this assists to some degree in learning Indonesian, such as writing in the Roman alphabet. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners participate orally in classroom routines and tasks, and share ideas about how Indonesian works. They respond to teacher-generated questions about texts, participate in games and give brief presentations about topics such as family, pets, or a favourite game or object. Learners follow instructions, read stories and captions, and use computer games for word building and language exercises. They participate in shared reading and create texts such as descriptions, captions and simple reports using modelled language.

Contexts of interaction

The context in which learners use Indonesian is primarily the language classroom and the school environment, with some sharing of their language learning at home. They may also have some access to Indonesian speakers and resources through audiovisual and digital technologies.

Texts and resources

Learners typically interact with teacher-generated materials, games and songs, and materials produced for learning Indonesian, such as computer games, cards and readers. They may be exposed to texts developed for children in Indonesia, such as television programs, advertisements or web pages, as a way of developing their cultural awareness.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are increasingly aware that Indonesian is used by millions of speakers who do not have English as their first language. They notice and question aspects of Indonesian language and culture such as sounds, gestures and word order. They are developing a wide range of vocabulary and simple conjunctions to generate their own ideas in structured tasks. They explore cultural traditions and practices and the language associated with these.

Level of support

The primary support for learners is the teacher of Indonesian, who provides instruction, explanation, examples, repetition, reinforcement and feedback. Learners create their own texts based on modelled language and teacher guidance. Supports also include word lists, pictures, body language, realia and multimedia equipment.

The role of English

Learners use Indonesian for classroom routines and structured learning tasks, and listening to and viewing Indonesian texts. They are supported by the teacher to notice and discuss aspects of Indonesian language and culture, and compare Indonesian to other known languages and cultures. English is used for class discussions when noticing, comparing and reflecting on both English and Indonesian languages and cultures.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Share with peers and teacher information about aspects of personal world such as daily routines, home, and favourite objects and pastimes

[Key concepts: routine, occasion; Key processes: describing, sharing]


Contribute to class activities such as solving a problem, creating a display or conducting a role-play/scenario

[Key concept: collaboration; Key processes: problem solving, participating]


Respond to questions, instructions and requests, and participate in routine exchanges

[Key concepts: respect, sopan santun; Key processes: interacting, responding]

Informing

Obtain and share information from peers and texts related to family, home, routines and interests

[Key concepts: routine, pastimes; Key processes: selecting, tabulating, categorising]


Present information about school and neighbourhood using tables, lists and descriptions

[Key concept: data; Key processes: informing, organising]

Creating

Listen to,and view creative texts such as rhymes, songs and stories, identifyingand acting out events

[Key concepts: character, plot; Key processes: performing, recounting; Keytypes: fable, legend, song, children’s television]


texts such as dialogues and stories, using formulaic expressions and modelled language

[Key concepts: humour, imagination; Key processes: presenting, creating; Keytypes: play, poem]

Translating

Translate using textualsuch as pictures, layout and key words to predict meaning, and comment on the non-equivalence of words due to cultural differences

[Key concepts: gist, meaning; Key processes: translating, predicting]


Produce texts such as descriptions and signs in both Indonesian and English for the school community

[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key processes: describing, captioning]

Reflecting

Communicate in Indonesian using routine phrases and expressions, recognising that suchreflects cultural practices and norms

[Key concepts: politeness, etiquette; Key processes: experimenting, connecting]


Interact with others and noticing howmatters, such as in use of terms of address, who and what is included, and whatis used

[Key concept: membership; Key processes: interacting, noticing]

Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise and reproduceconventions, including loan words from English andfor questions, statements and commands.

[Key concept: intonation; Key processes: imitating, discriminating sounds]


Develop understanding of ways to express possession and describe qualities of people and objects, and expand vocabulary related to personal and social world

[Key concepts: action, sequence; Key processes: describing, relating, predicting]


Recognise that texts such as stories, games and conversations have particular features

[Key concept: genre; Key processes: observing patterns, distinguishing]

Language variation and change

Understand thatvaries according to age, gender and social position, such as place in the family

[Key concept: status; Key processes: observing, comparing]


Recognise that Indonesian is the officialof Indonesia and is one of many languages in the Asia-Pacific region

[Key concept: official language; Key process: understanding]

Role of language and culture

Make connections between cultural practices anduse, such as specific vocabulary and expressions

[Key concept: diversity; Key processes: comparing, connecting]

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Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students interact in classroom routines and structured interactions with teachers and peers. They reproduce the sounds of au (for example, mau) and g (for example, gemuk ) and the final sound k (for example, tidak ). Students follow instructions (such as Duduklah or Bukalah bukumu ), make requests and respond with actions. They respond to questions such as Di mana? Kapan? Apakah? , by using simple phrases. They engage with texts, relying on graphics, key words and examples to support understanding, and respond using formulaic language. Students present factual information in texts through, for example, describing, listing and using tables. They work with modelled language to create their own texts, such as sequencing pictures and statements to create a comic and using word lists to complete a paragraph or simple story. Students use vocabulary related to school (such as buku, pensil, kursi ), home (such as rumah, kamar, mobil ) and some interests (such as suka main komputer, berenang, naik sepeda ) to create simple informative and descriptive texts. They describe amounts using cardinal numbers with belas and puluh, and create plurals by doubling nouns. Students state preferences using Saya [tidak] suka…, and use adjectives, including adjectives of size and colour (for example, besar, merah, tinggi, lucu), following the noun. They create subject-focus sentences, and use simple possessive word order such as teman saya or rumahnya, the prepositions di and ke, and the conjunction dan. Students translate texts using word lists and dictionaries, identifying words and expressions that do not have word-to-word equivalence, such as ‘footy’ or becak. They observe how language use, including their own, is influenced by culture and notice how it can influence intercultural experiences.

Students differentiate statements from questions according to intonation. They state that possessive word order in Indonesian differs from English. Students know that language use varies according to who is using it and with whom such as kamu for friends and Bu/Pak for teachers, and that some terms have specific cultural meanings, such as pronouns derived from family terms (for example, Bapak/Pak, Ibu/Bu). They make comparisons between Indonesian and English, particularly identifying similarities and differences in cultural practices related to daily routines and special occasions.

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Years 5 and 6  

Years 5 and 6 Description

The nature of the learners Students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communication repertoire in both their first language and Indonesian. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of t

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The nature of the learners

Students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communication repertoire in both their first language and Indonesian. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context. They are gaining awareness of the world around them and the proximity of Indonesia to Australia. Learners are noticing similarities and differences between Indonesian language and culture and their own.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners use formulaic phrases in Indonesian to participate in classroom routines, presentations and structured conversations with the teacher and peers. They focus on aspects of their personal world and are introduced to content related to Indonesia and other learning areas. Learners develop oral language through scaffolded tasks and texts such as songs, descriptions and stories. They extend their oral fluency by focusing on sentence-level intonation and stress.

In pairs and as a class, learners read texts such as signs, posters, scripts, lyrics and instructions (for example, for recipes or games). They are learning to apply their knowledge of key words and textual features to predict the meaning of unfamiliar language. Learners use modelled language to create texts such as a class story, script or contribution to a wiki space. They require opportunities to extend their language use by expressing ideas through expanding and connecting sentences.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Indonesian to interact with the teacher and classmates, and may use technology to communicate with peers in Indonesia. Tasks are typically structured, collaborative and at times competitive, such as a group performance, class display or games. Learners may notice use of Indonesian in the community, such as in the media.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of published texts such as readers, songs and computer games, as well as those prepared by the teacher of Indonesian, including language exercises, games and presentations. In addition, learners gain exposure to Indonesian language and culture through texts created for the Indonesian community, such as websites, music clips and television programs.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are expanding their knowledge of vocabulary and sentence construction. They develop a range of ber- verbs, simple conjunctions and prepositions, noticing that sentences follow a similar word order to English, apart from possessive pronouns and adjectives. They need to develop a metalanguage for describing aspects of Indonesian language and how it works. They are increasingly aware of the connection between language and cultural practices (for example, tawar-menawar, selamatan) and compare such connections to their own language and culture.

Level of support

Supports provided by the teacher at this level include explicit instruction, description, and comparison of Indonesian and English, modelled language use and examples of texts, and feedback on student work. Learners need practice and guidance in using dictionaries and access to word charts, vocabulary lists and examples when translating and creating texts.

The role of English

Indonesian is used for classroom routines and language learning tasks and may be used as the language of instruction for learning the content of other learning areas. The language of response varies according to task demands, with Indonesian used primarily for communicating in structured and supported tasks, and English (and other known languages) used for open-ended, comparative tasks that develop learners’ understanding of language and culture.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with peers to describe aspects of daily life, school, friends and pastimes

[Key concepts: friendship, leisure; Key processes: corresponding, interacting]


Collaborate with peers to plan and conduct a shared event or activity such as hosting a class guest or working with a buddy class

[Key processes: planning, organising, negotiating]


Participate in classroom interactions and structured tasks by asking and responding to questions, seeking permission and expressing preferences

[Key concepts: collaboration, responsibility; Key processes: requesting, interacting]

Informing

Locate, classify and compare factual information from texts about aspects of daily life and significant events across cultures

[Key concepts: lifestyle, event; Key processes: classifying, comparing]


Convey information about aspects ofandusing diagrams, charts, timelines, descriptions and guided reports

[Key concept: literacy; Key processes: describing, reporting]

Creating

Engage with texts such as cartoons, dialogues and fairy tales, and respond by describing aspects such asand actions

[Key concepts: fact, fiction; Key process: describing; Keytypes: story, script, cartoon]


Compose and perform texts such as a skit, rap or video clip, based on a stimulus, concept or theme

[Key concepts: imagination, drama; Key processes: performing, composing; Keytypes: dialogue, narrative]

Translating

Translate texts from Indonesian to English and vice versa, selecting from possible choices toappropriate meaning

[Key concept: meaning; Key processes: translating, selecting]


for the school community simple bilingual texts such as reports, instructions and games

[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: comparing, modifying]

Reflecting

Engage in intercultural experiences, describing aspects that are unfamiliar or uncomfortable and discussing own reactions and adjustments

[Key concepts: reaction, strangeness; Key processes: accommodating/rejecting, suggesting]


Share experiences of learning and using Indonesian, and comment on aspects that have been accepted or rejected and how this has impacted on own identity

[Key concepts: belonging, identity; Key processes: recording, evaluating]

Understanding
Systems of language

Noticeof phonemes such as ng/ngg/ny, and notice the difference inof loan words from English

[Key concepts: loan, emphasis; Key processes: experimenting, predicting]


Understand how to express actions and events in time and place using prepositions, and continue to expand knowledge of ber- verbs and vocabulary

[Key concepts: time, place; Key processes: applying, understanding]


Develop understanding of how grammatical structures and rules influence textual organisation

[Key concept: coherence; Key processes: connecting, applying]

Language variation and change

Develop awareness thatuse reflects different contexts, purposes and audiences

[Key concepts: social distance/intimacy, context; Key processes: analysing, predicting]


Recognise that Indonesian contains influences from other languages, such as regional and foreign languages

[Key concepts: change, borrowing; Key processes: identifying, discussing]

Role of language and culture

Recognise thatandare integral to the nature ofand communication

[Key concept: assumptions; Key processes: exploring, examining connections]

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Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use Indonesian to convey information about themselves, their family and friends, and daily routines and activities. They locate specific details and use familiar words and phrases to predict meanings in texts. They respond to and create texts to describe and share factual and imaginative ideas and experiences, using formulaic phrases and modelled language. Students produce ng/ny/ngg sounds, and apply knowledge of pronunciation and spelling to predict the sound, spelling and meaning of new words. They ask and respond to questions using Apa?, Siapa? Berapa? and Di mana? , and interact spontaneously with peers in discussions on familiar topics. Students use subject-focus construction with a range of ber- verbs (such as bermain, berjalan, bercakap-cakap, berenang ) and formulaic me- verbs (such as membaca, mendengarkan, menonton ). They express numbers using ratus and ribu , and describe character and appearance using noun + adjective word order, (for example, Rumah Budi besar; Dia tinggi dan lucu ). Students use possessive word order (for example, Nama teman saya… ) and describe events in time using pada with whole numbers and days of the week. They use prepositions (such as di atas/dalam/belakang ), and conjunctions (such as karena and tetapi ). They translate texts, relying on key words and formulaic expressions, describing how meanings may vary across languages and cultures. Students identify aspects of language use that relate to people’s (including their own) cultural perspectives and experiences.

Students know that Indonesian is a language system that has rules, and that word order in (subject-focus) sentences is similar to English. They identify features of texts such as adjectives in descriptions, superlatives in advertisements and imperatives in signs. Students know that language use varies according to age, relationships and situation, particularly in relation to terms of address and the nature of what is discussed. They identify loan words from English and their Indonesian spelling ( televisi ) and pronunciation ( kriket ). They describe similarities and differences between aspects of language and culture, such as celebrations (for example Idul Fitri and Hari Ulang Tahun), leisure (for example, takraw, bulu tangkis) and the environment (for example, desa, hutan). Students know that in both Indonesian and English some terms and expressions reflect culture-specific items and practices (for example, Selamat siang, mandi, guling) that cannot be directly translated.

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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Description

The nature of the learners These years represent a transition to secondary school, and students in this pathway are continuing to study Indonesian, bringing with them a capability to communicate, with some assistance, about their immediate world and Indonesia. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in considerin

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The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school, and students in this pathway are continuing to study Indonesian, bringing with them a capability to communicate, with some assistance, about their immediate world and Indonesia. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in considering intercultural exchanges, including their role in these.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners interact using Indonesian in classroom routines and communicative tasks. They give presentations and participate in dialogues, with some preparation and support, such as cue cards. They respond to short texts in Indonesian, locating specific details and gist. Learners are extending the range and quality of their writing through increased vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and by drafting and editing their own work and that of their peers. They recognise text-type features and use models to create a range of texts, including descriptions, recounts and reflections.

Contexts of interaction

The primary context for learning remains the Indonesian language class; however, there may be opportunities for interacting with peers in Indonesia and with other learners of Indonesian, such as through technology and sister school relationships. Learners may be exposed to Indonesian speakers, media and community events.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of increasingly complex texts specifically designed for learning Indonesian in schools, such as textbooks, videos, stories and online resources. Use of authentic texts created for the Indonesian-speaking community, such as songs, films (with subtitles), websites, advertisements, and excerpts from stories, provides opportunities to extend learners’ understanding of language and culture.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are extending their grammatical knowledge, such as how language structures and features are used in texts. They are increasingly aware of connections between language and culture, noticing, for example, degrees of formality in language use according to social relationships. Learners are exploring cultural concepts evident in Indonesian, such as gotong-royong, jam karet and selamatan, and comparing them to concepts in their own language and culture. They are learning to reflect on their own language and culture and how identity impacts on intercultural experiences.

Level of support

Learners require modelled language use, particularly at the paragraph and whole-text levels, and explicit instruction in grammatical knowledge, with comparison between English and Indonesian. They need support in using dictionaries, particularly in determining base words and choosing appropriate meanings for the context. Learners continue to access word lists, charts and examples to support their receptive and productive language use.

The role of English

Indonesian is used for classroom interaction, language learning tasks and experiences, and, with support, reflection on learning. Indonesian may be used for learning new content drawn from other learning areas. English is used for analysis, comparison and reflection in relation to abstract concepts.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Engage with others to exchange ideas, experiences and interests

[Key concepts: milestone, experience; Key processes: exchanging, connecting]


Take action to make plans, solve problems and address needs such as through corresponding and transacting in real or simulated situations

[Key processes: planning, inviting, transacting]


Interact with others by making requests, seeking clarification, checking understanding and expressing opinions

[Key concept: interaction; Key processes: requesting, clarifying]

Informing

Identify, summarise and evaluate factual information related to topics of interest such as leisure, food and diet, entertainment and special occasions

[Key concept: data; Key processes: summarising, evaluating]


Give presentations to describe, compare and report on experiences and topics of interest

[Key concepts: leisure, travel; Key processes: summarising, reporting]

Creating

Respond to aspects of imaginative texts by expressing opinions and feelings about them and comparing these with imaginative texts in ownand culture

[Key concepts: moral, humour; Key processes: comparing, reviewing; Keytypes: story, song, play]


Compose individual and shared texts about imagined people, places and experiences, in order to entertain others

[Key concepts: amusement, imagination, admiration, journey; Key processes: composing, collaborating, performing; Keytypes: recount, advertisement, cartoon]

Translating

Translate and analyse a range of texts, comparingchoices and exploring differences in meanings

[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: approximating, comparing]


bilingual texts in collaboration with others for the wider community

[Key concept: interpretation; Key processes: designing, explaining]

Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions with peers, comparing aspects of culture, monitoring how ownimpacts onuse and how this may enhance or inhibit understanding

[Key concept: comfort/discomfort; Key processes: monitoring, adjusting]