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  • Overview
  • Indonesian Context Statement
  • Indonesian Years F–10 Sequence
  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students are beginning their study of Indonesian and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to

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The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Indonesian and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Indonesian. Students’ textual knowledge developed through English literacy learning supports the development of literacy in Indonesian. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider issues of how the experience impacts on their sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners use Indonesian in a range of classroom interactions and experiences. They read and listen to texts, and apply modelled language in creating their own texts, such as scripts, messages and stories. Learners draw on their literacy in their first language and their understanding of features of a range of text types to predict meanings and create texts in Indonesian, for example, emails, advertisements and instructions. They develop grammatical knowledge and language awareness through paying close attention to texts, comparing languages, and applying their knowledge in language exercises and tasks.

Learners consider fundamental concepts associated with Indonesian such as the diversity of peoples, religions, geography and languages. They explore the notion of Australia and Indonesia being neighbours, and compare aspects of environment, lifestyle and practices in both cultures. Learners use a range of processes, such as observing, comparing and reflecting on language use. They develop a metalanguage for discussing language and culture. They may monitor and reflect on their language and culture learning through discussions, a journal or shared digital space.

Contexts of interaction

The Indonesian language class is the main context for learning, with use of Indonesian for routines and structured interactions with peers and teachers. With teacher guidance, learners may communicate with Indonesian peers through information and communication technologies. They may encounter ideas about Indonesia outside of the classroom, such as in the media that they bring to their learning.

Texts and resources

Learners will be exposed to a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts, both spoken and written. They will engage with commercial, teacher-generated and authentic texts such as advertisements, greeting cards, songs, stories and notices, including in digital form. Some authentic texts will be used to analyse language use, for example, recipes, conversations, comic strips, excerpts from films (with subtitles) and television programs. Learners may interact with Indonesian speakers such as peers, teacher assistants or community members, both face to face and through technologies.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are introduced to the written and spoken forms of Indonesian, noticing that it uses the same alphabet as English but with some differences in pronunciation. They become familiar with a base word system with prefixes. Learners are introduced to word order and simple sentence construction. They begin to develop a sound knowledge of vocabulary, particularly terms related to people, places and things in their immediate world.

Level of support

Learners rely on teacher talk, instruction, modelling, feedback, and structured opportunities for practising and understanding new language. Supports include word lists/dictionaries, visual organisers, images and gesture. Learners may collaborate with peers in structured pair and group tasks that have clear roles and expectations. Learners require regular opportunities to monitor and evaluate their language and culture learning.

The role of English

Learners’ repertoire in their first language far exceeds that in Indonesian and English is used as a scaffold and as a medium of instruction. It is likely that English will be used for explanations, discussions and analysis of the language system and cultural meanings in texts. Indonesian is used for routine exchanges and classroom interactions.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions


Interact with peers and teacher to exchange information and opinions about self, friends and family, pastimes, special occasions and the immediate environment

[Key concepts: self, friendship, pastimes; Key processes: socialising, describing]

Make plans and obtain goods or services in real or simulated situations, through corresponding and transacting with others using modelled texts

[Key concepts: negotiation, transaction; Key processes: planning, negotiating, role-playing]

Interact in class routines and exchanges by asking and responding to questions, following instructions, and seeking help and permission

[Key concept: routine; Key processes: questioning, interacting]


Identify gist and locate factual information (such as details about people and events) from a range of spoken and written texts, and use the information in new ways

[Key concepts: leisure, travel, geography, special occasions; Key processes: comprehending, classifying, sequencing]

Present factual information and ideas about aspects ofandin oral, written and multimodal form

[Key concept: culture; Key process: informing]


Engage with imaginative texts such as cartoons, songs and stories, and respond by describing aspects such as characters, events and ideas

[Key concepts: plot, character; Key processes: comprehending, describing; Keytypes: cartoon, song, story]

individual and shared texts with imagined scenarios,and events, using modelled language

[Key concept: creativity; Key processes: creating, performing; Keytypes: (graphic) story, play, cartoon]


Translate andtexts such as descriptions, emails, signs and notices, from Indonesian to English and vice versa, using contextualand textual features, and noticing non-equivalence of meaning

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: translating, considering]

bilingual texts such as signs, posters, games and descriptions for the classroom and the school community

[Key concepts: audience, comprehensibility; Key processes: interpreting, comparing]


Interact with Indonesian peers and texts, noticing what and howis being used, and considering own reactions and how these relate to ownand culture

[Key concepts: norms, assumptions; Key processes: monitoring, relating]

Participate in learning and using Indonesian, noticing how aspects ofsuch as family background, age, school and interests impact on intercultural exchange

[Key concepts: self, profile; Key process: noticing]

Systems of language

Develop understanding ofrelated to single and combined sounds and the use ofin statements and questions, noticing Indonesian spelling andconventions

[Key concept: sound system; Key processes: recognising, comparing]

Develop knowledge of structures and vocabulary for describing people, places and things, such as pronouns, ber- and me- verbs, adjectives, prepositions and word order

[Key concepts: grammatical system; Key process: understanding]

Recognise grammatical structures and features in a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts, and notice how these contribute to meaning

[Key concept: genre; Key process: analysing]

Language variation and change

Understand that Indonesian, like all languages, varies according to participants, roles and relationships, situations and cultures

[Key concept: variation; Key process: noticing]

Understand that Indonesian is a nationalthat has been and continues to be changed through interaction with other languages and cultures

[Key concepts: dynamism, communication; Key process: discussing]

Role of language and culture

Notice connections betweenandin interculturaluse, recognising how words and expressions may be culture-specific

[Key concept: interdependence; Key processes: analysing, making connections]

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Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students share factual information and opinions about their personal and immediate worlds, including personal details, family, pets, friends, pastimes, school and neighbourhood. They interact with others orally and in writing, asking and responding to questions using Siapa, Apakah, Berapa, Bagaimana, Apa, Di/Ke/Dari mana…?, and expressing preferences using saya suka, kurang/tidak suka, mau/tidak mau. They pronounce the vowels and consonants such as c (ch) and r (trilled) and combined sounds such as ng, au. They use formulaic expressions (for example, saya tidak tahu, maaf, saya tidak mengerti, sekali lagi) to sustain interactions. Students describe qualities of appearance, colour, character and condition (such as tinggi, merah muda, lucu, panas ), and identify quantities using numbers and fractions. They respond to and create texts to describe real and imagined events and characters. Students create personal, informative and imaginative texts incorporating textual features such as salutations and using cohesive devices such as conjunctions for example, dan, tetapi, karena and untuk . They form sentences with subject-verb-object construction (for example, Saya mau bermain sepak bola ), typically using simple base words (for example, makan, minum, naik, bangun ), ber- verbs (for example, bermain, belajar, berenang, berdansa, berlari ) and formulaic me- verbs (for example, menonton, mendengarkan ). Students refer to others using pronouns such as saya, kamu, dia, mereka, Bu/Pak , and use these in possessive form, including using -nya (for example, sepatunya trendi ). They refer to events in time and place using the prepositions pada , di and ke as well as time markers such as sebelum/sesudah, yang lalu , and depan . Students predict meaning based on knowledge of their first language, text features and key words, including loan words from English. They translate texts, identifying culture-specific language such as vocabulary related to cultural artefacts (for example, gayung, becak, warung ), environment (for example, sawah, desa, cicak ), and practices (for example, Idul Fitri ). Students describe their experiences of using Indonesian and views about how it fits with their sense of self.

Students know that Indonesian is a language used by millions of Indonesians in daily life and that it is constantly changing. They know that Indonesian uses a base word and affix system and they use metalanguage to describe and compare features and rules of sentence construction including the use of possessives and adjectives. Students identify textual features such as salutations, conversation markers and sequencing devices. They know that spoken and written forms of Indonesian can vary, for example, the elision of pronouns and some verbs in speech. They identify when language changes according to people and their relationships, such as informal language with friends (for example, kamu, nggak, hebat ) and formal language with teachers and adults (for example, Anda, tidak, baik sekali ). Students make connections between aspects of their own language and culture, such as particular expressions or practices, and compare these with Indonesian language and culture.

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Years 9 and 10  

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students have prior experience of learning Indonesian and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts in which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider worl

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The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Indonesian and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts in which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Indonesian may feature in these.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners engage with a range of texts in Indonesian. They need opportunities for both prepared and spontaneous language use, such as giving presentations, using captions and visual supports. Learners interact with others such as in conversations, interviews and correspondence, and in shared experiences such as games and excursions. They engage in individual and collaborative writing for public purposes, such as a debate or performance, and interact with Indonesian peers such as through information and communication technologies such as SMS, social networking sites and Skype. They create bilingual texts for peers and the wider school community, such as short stories, role-plays or skits, posters, articles or videos.

Learners need explicit instruction to understand new grammar such as embedded clauses and object-focus construction. They need opportunities to recognise patterns and rules, analyse texts, and make connections between language and culture. They consider the power of language to achieve particular effects and influence people, including themselves. They develop a metalanguage for comparing and contrasting aspects of language and culture, and reflecting on their own language and culture.

Contexts of interaction

The language class remains the main context of interaction for learning and using Indonesian, including interacting with a wide range of texts and people, such as teacher assistants and exchange students, and with peers in Indonesia using communication technologies. They may also encounter Indonesian in the wider community, such as in the media, film festivals, community events, guest speakers or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with language learning texts such as textbooks and online materials. They have increased exposure to authentic texts such as films, stories, songs, announcements, television programs, magazines, websites, blogs, video clips and social media texts.

Features of Indonesian language use

Students are learning to recognise differences in spoken and written Indonesian, as well as formal and informal language. They are developing understanding of the affixation system of Indonesian and learning to appreciate the importance of passive voice, religion, and a collectivist worldview that is evident in language use.

Level of support

Learners need opportunities for independent learning such as researching a topic of interest, and monitor their language learning needs and progress such as through a journal or folio. They analyse and reflect on texts and intercultural experiences, and may require models when constructing their own texts. While learners may seek teacher feedback, they also need to develop autonomous learning practices such as the use of dictionaries and mnemonic devices.

The role of English

Learners use Indonesian for daily interaction, discussion and exchanges with the teacher and peers. They may use English for debate, discussions and reflection on complex and abstract ideas that are beyond their linguistic range in Indonesian. English provides a reference point for comparing and contrasting their knowledge of Indonesian and understanding the nature of language and culture, including their own.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Share personal opinions and experiences with peers, comparing aspects of teenage life such as relationships, events and aspirations

[Key concepts: youth, relationship; Key processes: exchanging, comparing]

Interact with others to make decisions and solve problems when making plans or obtaining goods or services

[Key concept: consumption; Key processes: negotiating, collaborating]

Contribute to structured discussions and tasks by asking and responding to questions, clarifying understanding and expressing agreement or disagreement

[Key concept: mutual respect, negotiation; Key processes: discussing, clarifying]


Engage with texts to locate information and infer meaning, state opinions on information obtained and present it in new forms

[Key concepts: perspective, representation, concepts from other learning areas; Key processes: analysing, inferring, researching]

Convey factual information and opinions in texts such as reports and displays using graphics and multimedia tools

[Key concepts: fact, opinion; Key processes: constructing, presenting]


Respond to aspects of imaginative texts such as character, ideas, events and setting by expressing reactions and opinions, and by modifying aspects

[Key concept: imagination; Key processes: adapting, comparing and contrasting; Keytypes: script, song/poem, story, video]

a variety of texts to express imaginary people, places and experiences, drawing on aspects of personal and social world

[Key concepts: journey, adventure, emotion; Key processes: narrating, sequencing; Keytypes: story, game/show, comic]


Translate informative and imaginative texts from Indonesian to English and vice versa, comparing own interpretations with others and discussing what differs and why

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: translating, comparing]

bilingual texts for the wider community, such as notices and instructions, promotional material, performances and announcements

[Key concepts: interpretation, bilinguality; Key processes: constructing, composing, explaining]


Engage with Indonesian peers and texts, recognising how own cultural assumptions, practices and beliefs influenceand content, and choosing whether and how to make adjustments

[Key concept: intraculturality; Key processes: questioning assumptions, reflecting]

Interact with others, monitoring howinfluences intercultural exchange, and reflect on ownand the diversity of Indonesian identities

[Key concepts: identity, diversity; Key processes: monitoring, comparing, reflecting]

Systems of language

Recogniseof compound words and polysyllabic words, and use of rhythm andin complex sentences

[Key concepts: fluency, rhythm; Key processes: reproducing, experimenting]

Develop knowledge of vocabulary and structure to extend meanings, such as complex verbs, affixation, a range of cohesive devices and object-focus construction

[Key concept: grammatical systems; Key processes: experimenting, applying]

Develop understanding of textual conventions and how they shape meaning and influence responses

[Key concepts: power, influence, emotion; Key processes: analysing, evaluating]

Language variation and change

Develop awareness of register, comparingchoices and considering how and whyvaries in formality

[Key concepts: formality, register; Key processes: observing, analysing]

Recognise how Indonesian impacts and is impacted by social, political and cultural changes, such as new information andtechnologies

[Key concepts: impact, power, technology; Key processes: analysing, discussing]

Role of language and culture

Understand the role ofandin shaping and conveying cultural identity, including the multiple languages and cultures both in Indonesia and in Australia

[Key concepts: multiplicity,ecology; Key processes: exploring, reflecting, explaining]

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Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students interact with peers and adults using written and spoken Indonesian to communicate about personal interests and relationships, practices and experiences, and about broader issues such as health and the environment, including as these relate to Indonesia. They respond to and create personal, descriptive, informative and imaginative texts for a range of purposes. When participating in presentations, correspondence and dialogues, students use both rehearsed and spontaneous language, and exchange facts, ideas and opinions, using questions such as Bagaimana, Mengapa and Untuk apa? In speaking, they apply conventions of pronunciation, stress and rhythm to a range of sentence structures. Students use a variety of me- verbs, pronouns, and noun forms such as ke-an, pe- and pe-an . They apply knowledge of textual features such as salutations, sequencing, and persuasive and emotive language to comprehend and create public texts. Students use embedded clauses with yang to expand ideas, and create cohesion and interest by using conjunctions such as misalnya, seperti, termasuk and yaitu . They refer to the past (for example, yang lalu, dulu ), present (for example, sedang, sedangkan, sambil, sementara ) and future (for example, akan, mau, kalau, besok, masa depan ). Students engage with others using formulaic expressions and verbal fillers to sustain and extend interactions, for example, maaf, mohon diulang, saya kurang memahami, oh, begitu! dan kamu?, dengan siapa? Maksud saya, anu . They translate texts and create bilingual texts, comparing different interpretations and deciding how to deal with instances of non-equivalence, such as proverbs, idioms, proper nouns, and culture-specific terms and expressions. They describe their own reactions in intercultural encounters and reflect on how these may relate to their own assumptions and identity, and how they may be perceived by others.

Students know that Indonesian is a national, standardised language used for education, media and government, and that it is one of many languages in Indonesia. They know that language use varies according to context, purpose, audience and mode, and that languages change over time. They identify colloquial forms (for example, banget, cowok ) and make connections between these and their formal counterparts (for example, gimana?/Bagaimana?; kalo/kalau; nggak/tidak ). They use metalanguage to discuss features of language, texts and grammar such as object-focus construction. They know affixation rules for forming verbs (for example, me-kan, me-i ) and nouns (for example, pe-, pe-an, ke-an ) and apply this to predict and decipher meanings, including using bilingual dictionaries effectively. Students know that Indonesian borrows from other languages, including local and foreign languages. They make connections between aspects of culture in language use such as terms for artefacts (for example, kris, andong), practices (for example, minum jamu, batik/ikat), ideas (for example, halus/kasar) and values (for example, sopan/tidak sopan, rendah hati).

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