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  • Hindi Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2  

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of learners Children in this pathway enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in Hindi, English and sometimes other languages or dialects. There will be variation in terms of proficiency in Hindi, depending on variables such as home language environment, generational language shift and parental cultural and linguistic background. Childr

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The nature of learners

Children in this pathway enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in Hindi, English and sometimes other languages or dialects. There will be variation in terms of proficiency in Hindi, depending on variables such as home language environment, generational language shift and parental cultural and linguistic background. Children will have varying degrees of literacy capability in both/either Hindi and/or English, and share the experience of belonging to worlds in which languages play a key role. Cognitive and social development at this stage is exploratory and egocentric. The curriculum builds on children’s interests, sense of enjoyment and curiosity, with an emphasis on active learning and confidence building. Hindi is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy, which for some children will be being learnt as a second or additional language. Learning in the two areas differs significantly but each supports and enriches the other.

Hindi language learning and use

Rich language input characterises the first stages of learning. Children are familiar with the sounds and patterns of Hindi, and their fluency and accuracy are further developed through activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games. Children identify and use high-frequency expressions and phrases, and recognise the purpose and intention of simple texts. They use culturally appropriate non-verbal strategies, and produce statements and expressions in response to prompts and cues. They are supported to use Hindi for different language functions, such as asking and responding to questions, expressing wishes, responding to directions, and taking turns in games and simple shared learning activities. They notice that the languages that they know are used differently in different situations and that they themselves communicate differently in some situations when using Hindi, English or other languages. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using Hindi for purposeful interaction in some less familiar contexts.

Contexts of interaction

Children interact with each other and the teacher, with some access to wider school and community members. Information and communications technology (ICT) resources provide additional access to Hindi language and associated cultural experience, connecting children’s social worlds with those of Hindi-speaking children in communities other than their own. Hindi is the dominant language used in classroom interactions, routines and activities, supported by the use of English when required. The early stage of language and literacy development is supported by use of concrete materials and resources, gestures and body language. Play and imaginative activities, games, music, movement and familiar routines provide essential scaffolding and context for language development.

Texts and resources

Children engage with a variety of spoken, visual, written and digital texts. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas and join in songs, rhymes, stories and chants, and various forms of play and simple conversational exchanges. Written and digital texts include stories, shared Big Books, wall charts and teacher-generated materials, such as games, labels, captions and flashcards.

Features of Hindi language use

Children’s familiarity with the spoken form of Hindi supports their introduction to the written form of the language. They make connections between speech and writing, and are introduced to the Devanagari script, recognising and reproducing written forms of the 13 sounds classified as vowels and the 33 consonant sounds. They become familiar with the syllabic structure of the script and the use of matra and conjunct forms of consonants. They recognise basic elements of grammar, such as the subject-object-verb order of sentences, the placing of adjectives before nouns, सुंदर लड़की, छोटा बच्चा, रंग-बिरंगी तितली, agreements for number and gender, मैं, हम, मेरा, तुम्हारा, variable use of pronouns and postpositions and the use of simple verbs to describe actions, गाना, खाना, खेलना, दौड़ना. Writing skills progress from labelling and copying familiar words and phrases to co-constructing simple texts using familiar vocabulary, language features and sentence structures. As children learn to adjust language to suit different purposes and situations, they begin to understand how culture shapes language use. They compare how they feel when they use different languages and how they view different languages and people who use them. This introduction to the meta-dimension of intercultural learning develops the ability to ‘decentre’, to consider different perspectives and ways of being, and to become aware of themselves as communicators and cultural participants.

Level of support

Learning is supported via the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling, monitoring and moderating by the teacher; provision of multiple and varied sources of input; opportunities for revisiting, recycling and reviewing; and continuous cueing, feedback, response and encouragement.

The role of English

While learners are encouraged to use Hindi whenever possible, English is used when appropriate for discussion, comparison, reflection and explanations. Mixing the two languages is common at this level; it reflects children’s experience in their home communities.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with teacher and peers to exchange greetings,about themselves and their families, to express thanks, wishes, feelings and preferences

[Key concepts: self, family, home, wishes; Key processes: interacting, greeting, describing]


Participate in guided activities, such as songs, games, simple tasks and transactions, using movement, gestures, pictures and concrete materials to support meaning

[Key concepts: play, performance, action learning; Key processes: participating, playing, describing]


Recognise and respond to classroom routines and interactions, such as opening and closing of lessons, transition activities, following instructions and taking turns

[Key concepts: routines, directions, interactions; Key processes: listening, responding, interacting]

Informing

Locate specific phrases and points of information in simple texts such as charts, lists, stories and songs, and use the information to complete guided oral and written tasks

[Key concepts: information, meaning, context, text; Key processes: making meaning, predicting, identifying]


Use simple statements, gestures and support materials to convey factual information about self, family, friends and the immediate environment

[Key concepts: self, interests, environment; Key processes: naming, labelling, describing, presenting]

Creating

Participate in imaginative texts such as stories, rhymes, puppet shows, lullabies or action songs, and respond through singing, dancing, drawing, movement and action

[Key concepts: rhythm, expression, character, response; Key processes: singing, responding, drawing, evaluating; Keytypes: stories, songs, poems, rhymes]


Play with sound patterns, rhythm and rhyme toand adapt Hindi stories, poems and songs that involve familiarand non-verbal forms of expression

[Key concepts: performance, rhythm, expression; Key processes: performing, imagining, creating, presenting; Keytypes: songs, plays, mime, puppet shows, drawings, poems]

Translating

Explain the meaning of simple Hindi words, phrases and gestures, noticing similarities or differences with English or other known languages

[Key concepts: language, meaning, translation; Key processes: noticing, comparing, translating, explaining]


simple spoken, print orfor the classroom that combine Hindi and English, such as songs, captions, picture dictionaries, wall charts or labels

[Key concepts: bilingualism, vocabulary, translation; Key processes: creating, comparing, matching, comparing]

Reflecting

Notice and describe ways in which they use Hindi and English and how these involve different words and behaviours

[Key concepts: meaning, culture, difference; Key processes: noticing, comparing, reflecting, describing]


Use simple statements, gestures and support materials to identify themselves as members of different groups, including their family, community and school

[Key concepts: identity, self, community, culture; key processes: describing, representing, comparing, reflecting]

Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise the relationship between the sounds and patterns ofand elements of the Devanagari script, including the representation of long and short vowels, consonants and conjuncts

[Key concepts: pronunciation, characters, writing; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, reciting, writing]


Understand elements of Hindi grammar, such as the subject-object-verb sentence structure, question, answer and statement forms, agreements for gender and number, the use of pronouns and postpositions and of verbs in relation to actions and commands

[Key concepts: grammar, sentences, patterns, rules; Key processes: noticing, identifying, explaining]


Understand thatis organised as ‘texts’ that take different forms and use different structures to achieve their purposes

[Key concepts: text, meaning,features; Key processes: recognising, comparing, describing]

Language variation and change

Recognise that different words, expressions and gestures are used by Hindi speakers to interact with different people in different situations

[Key concepts:variation, respect, difference; Key processes: noticing, selecting, adapting]


Recognise that all languages change over time and borrow words and expressions from each other

[Key concepts:change, word-borrowing; Key processes: noticing, comparing, identifying]


Recognise that Australia is a multicultural society with communities of speakers of many different languages including Hindi

[Key concepts: culture, multiculturalism, diversity, family, community; Key processes: observing, noting, describing, comparing]

Role of language and culture

Understand that people usein ways that reflect their culture, such as where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning; Key processes: noticing, comparing, reflecting]

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Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange greetings and talk about themselves and their families, for example, नमस्ते, आप कैसे हैं?, मेरा नाम गीता है, आप का क्या नाम है? मेरे घर में चार लोग हैं। मेरा एक भाई है। मेरी एक बहन है। ये मेरे पिताजी हैं। ये बहुत अच्छे हैं। ये मेरी माता जी हैं। ये बहुत सुन्दर हैं। ये मेरे बड़े भाई हैं। यह मेरी छोटी बहन है। इसका नाम सुधा है। यह पाँच साल की है. They express thanks, likes and dislikes, feelings and wishes, for example, मुझे आइस क्रीम अच्छी लगती है। आप को क्या अच्छा लगता है? मैं आप से नाराज़ हूँ। मुझे खेलना पसंद है। मुझे किताबें पढ़ना पसंद नहीं है। मैं उदास हूँ । मैं बहुत ख़ुश हूँ. They use repetitive language when participating in guided activities and responding to classroom routines, for example, नमस्ते, बच्चो बैठ जाओ, किताब खोलो। जी अच्छा, ठीक है। अपनी किताबें निकालो। पाठ ख़त्म हुआ। अब तुम सब जा सकते हो। कल मिलेंगें। नमस्ते। धन्यवाद. When speaking, they use the sounds and patterns of the Hindi language, for example, त ,थ ,ग ,घ ,ट,ठ ,द ,ध.They identify words and phrases in simple texts and locate and share specific points of information about their immediate environment using illustrations and gestures to support meaning, for example, मेरे पास एक लाल गाड़ी है। मैंने एक पीला फूल देखा। मेरी किताब बहुत भारी है। मैंने अपने परिवार के साथ खाना खाया। मेरे घर के सामने एक बस स्टॉप है। मैं प्रार्थना करने मंदिर/ मस्जिद / गुरुद्वारे / गिरजाघर जाता हूँ. They respond to imaginative texts that have listened to, viewed or participated in through singing, drawing, movement and action, and use illustrations, familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression to interpret and adapt Hindi stories, poems and songs. Students use familiar words and phrases, for example, बैठ जाओ। यहाँ आओ। वहाँ जाओ। इधर बैठो। उधर जाकर खड़े हो। इस जगह पर मत कूदो। चलो उधर चलें. They use basic rules of word order, and gender and number agreement in simple sentences, for example, लड़का खड़ा है। लड़की खड़ी है। लड़के जा रहे हैं। लड़कियाँ जा रही हैं। बेटा खाना खा रहा है। बेटे खाना खा रहे हैं, बेटियाँ खाना खा रही हैं. They translate and interpret frequently used words and simple phrases, and create word lists, labels and captions in Hindi and English for the classroom environment. Students identify themselves as members of different groups and describe different words and behaviours they use when communicating in Hindi and English.

Students make connections between spoken Hindi, including vowels, consonants and conjuncts, and the use of Devanagari script, and join characters to form simple words. They distinguish between question, answer and statement forms, for example, आप कहाँ जा रहे हैं? तुम कैसे हो? क्या आप मेरे साथ चलेंगे? वहाँ कौन है? आप वहाँ क्यों जा रहे हैं? They identify the use of pronouns, postpositions and verbs in relation to actions and commands. They identify features of familiar texts. They distinguish between the language spoken by different Hindi speakers in different contexts and situations, such as at home with family or at school with the teacher.Students name some of the many languages that are spoken in Australia, including Hindi, and give examples of simple words in English that have been borrowed from Hindi, such as पायजामा, योग, साड़ी, ख़ाकी. They identify how language usage reflects where and how people live and what is important to them.

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Years 3 and 4  

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of learners At this stage, children are developing cognitive and social capabilities that allow for increased control of their own learning. They are able to conceptualise and reason, and have better memory and focus. This is a stage of social experimentation, with children referencing themselves against their peers. They are more independent and less egocentr

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The nature of learners

At this stage, children are developing cognitive and social capabilities that allow for increased control of their own learning. They are able to conceptualise and reason, and have better memory and focus. This is a stage of social experimentation, with children referencing themselves against their peers. They are more independent and less egocentric, enjoying both competitive and cooperative activities. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning, which builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Hindi language learning and use

Children interact with peers and the teacher in classroom routines and a variety of learning experiences and activities. They engage in a lot of listening, and build oral proficiency through the provision of rich language input and opportunities to engage in communicative activities where grammatical forms and language features are purposefully integrated. The language they use and hear is authentic with some modification. Vocabulary is familiar and and structures are simple. Children follow instructions, exchange simple information and express ideas and feelings related to their personal worlds. They negotiate interactions and activities and participate in shared tasks, performance and play. They read and create short texts on topics relevant to their interests and enjoyment, such as family, pets, favourite activities or food. They continue to build vocabulary that relates to a wider range of domains, such as areas of the curriculum that involve some specialised language use. The language used in routine activities is re-used and reinforced from lesson to lesson in different situations, making connections between what has been learnt and what is to be learnt.

Contexts of interaction

The contexts in which students interact in learning and using Hindi are primarily local: the classroom, school, home and community, with some access to wider communities of Hindi speakers and resources through virtual and digital technology. The development of oral proficiency is similar in many ways to their parallel development of English language and literacy and continues to rely on rich language input in different modes and from different sources.

Texts and resources

Learners engage primarily with a variety of teacher-generated materials, stories, songs, puppet shows and games, and with materials produced for young Hindi learners such as computer language games, cards and readers. They may also have access to materials developed for children in India and other Hindi-speaking regions of the world, such as television programs, advertisements or web pages, as a means of broadening cultural knowledge and awareness of diversity of language experience.

Features of Hindi language use

Children recognise and apply elements of Hindi grammar, such as the use of tenses, गया था, जाऊँगा, जा रहा हूँ, खाया था, खा रहा हूँ, खाऊँगा, possessive adjectives to express ownership, मेरी पुस्तक, तुम्हारा बस्ता, and pronouns for places and objects, यहाँ, वहाँ, यह, वह. They understand the use of constructions related to compulsion, conditional sentences and compound verbs to indicate capabilities or completion of actions. Children’s development of literacy skills progresses from supported comprehension and use of familiar and personally significant sight words to working with more elaborated texts that take account of context, purpose and audience. The development of reading skills and textual knowledge is supported through interaction with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Imaginative and interactive texts, such as picture books, rhymes, stories, puppet play, songs and games, engage the expressive and cultural dimensions of language. Procedural, informative and descriptive texts, such as negotiated classroom rules, tuckshop orders or family and class profiles, show how language is used to ‘get things done’. A balance between language knowledge and language use is established by integrating focused attention to grammar, vocabulary building, pronunciation, and non-verbal and cultural dimensions of language use with communicative and purposeful learning activity.

Children talk about differences and similarities they notice between Hindi, English and other languages they know, and also between cultural behaviours and ways of communicating.

Learning Hindi in school contributes to the process of making sense of the children’s worlds which characterises this stage of development. Children are increasingly aware that the Hindi language is used not only in their own community in Australia and in India, but also in many other places around the world. As they engage consciously with differences between languages and cultures, they make comparisons and consider differences and possibilities in ways of communicating in different languages. This leads them to explore concepts of identity and difference, to think about cultural and linguistic diversity, and about what it means to speak more than one language in the contemporary world.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves continued extensive support. Form-focused activities build children’s grammatical knowledge and develop accuracy and control in spoken and written Hindi; opportunities to apply this knowledge in meaningful learning experiences build communicative skills, confidence and fluency. Tasks are carefully scaffolded: teachers provide models and examples; introduce language, concepts and resources needed to manage and complete the activity; make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting; and provide support for self-monitoring and reflection.

The role of English

The teacher and learners use Hindi wherever possible in classroom interactions and learning activities. English is used for discussion, reflection and explanation when appropriate, for example, when considering the nature and relationship of language and culture, or in tasks which involve bilingual work that includes comparison and analysis of Hindi and English. Discussion in Hindi and English supports learning, develops children’s conceptual frames and builds metalanguage for talking about language and culture systems. The process of moving between languages consolidates their already established sense of what it means to be bilingual or multilingual and provides opportunities for reflection on the experience of living interculturally in intersecting language communities.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Engage in simple interactions such as asking and answering questions or issuing and responding to invitations, and exchange information about their interests, activities and personal worlds

[Key concepts: communication, information, leisure, interests; Key processes: interacting, exchanging, describing]


Participate in shared learning activities and transactions, such as science experiments, cooking or craft activities, creating displays or swapping items

[Key concepts: roles, collaboration, learning experiences, transactions; Key processes: negotiating, creating, transacting]


Respond to questions, directions and requests and use simple questions and statements to ask for help or permission, attract attention and check understanding

[Key concepts: directions, response, support; Key processes: interacting, responding]

Informing

Locate and organise information in different types of spoken, written and visual texts relating to personal, social and natural worlds

[Key concepts: information, natural world, physical world, daily life; Key processes: listening, reading, identifying, classifying]


Present simple information about home, school and community, using visual support such as photos, maps or charts

[Key concepts: family, communication, identity; Key processes: surveying, describing, presenting, reflecting]

Creating

Engage with creative and imaginative texts such as stories, rhymes, dance and action songs, identifying favourite elements and acting out key events or interactions

[Key concepts: imagination, character, plot; Key processes: responding, identifying, creating, evaluating; Keytypes: films, stories, myths, puppetry]


simple imaginative texts, such as dialogues, storyboards, puppet shows or songs that encourage exploration and enjoyment of language

[Key concepts: expression, humour, entertainment, enjoyment; Key processes: creating, performing, experimenting; Keytypes: poems, songs, puppet shows, animations, stories]

Translating

Translate simple texts such as rhymes, captions, story books or familiar social interactions, noticing words and expressions that are difficult to translate

[Key concepts: meaning, translation, interpretation, culture; Key processes: translating, noticing, reflecting, explaining]


simple bilingual texts, such as signs, notices or captions for displays in the classroom and wider school community

[Key concepts: bilingualism, translating, meaning, pronunciation; Key processes: composing, discussing, selecting]

Reflecting

Recognise that ways of communicating in different languages reflect ways of behaving and thinking

[Key concepts: culture, communication, respect, values, difference; Key processes: noticing, reflecting comparing, describing]


about their individual and group sense ofand how this is expressed through the different languages they use

[Key concepts: language, culture, identity, community; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, analysing, representing]

Understanding
Systems of language

Build phonic awareness andskills through singing, reciting and experimenting with sounds; develop familiarity with the use of the under-dottedrepresenting loan sounds in Hindi and conventions governing punctuation marks in written script

[Key concepts: pronunciation, sounds, loan words; Key processes: identifying, distinguishing, recording]


Recognise and apply elements of grammar, such asand adjectival forms, conjunctions, gender and number markers,tenses and compound forms, and constructions related to compulsion

[Key concepts: grammar, tense, gender, number; Key processes: recognising, applying, naming]


Notice differences between simple spoken, written and multimodal texts used in different contexts, comparing with similar texts in English

[Key concepts: genre,features; Key processes: identifying, comparing, distinguishing]

Language variation and change

Understand that the way the Hindiis used varies according to the age, gender and background of speakers and that it involves different dialects and accents

[Key concepts: standard language, variation, status, relationship; Key processes: noticing, comparing, differentiating]


Understand that the Hindiis influenced by and in turn influences other languages and cultures

[Key concepts: change, influence, contact; Key processes: identifying, investigating]


Understand that Hindi is an important regional and internationalused by speakers who are often multilingual in different contexts around the world

[Key concepts: multilingualism, accent, dialect; Key processes: mapping, grouping, identifying]

Role of language and culture

Recognise the relationship betweenand culture, for example, by identifying expressions, gestures or forms of address associated with different cultural practices

[Key concepts: non-verbal language, politeness, culture, traditions; Key processes: discussing, describing, comparing, reflecting]

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Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers to share information about their interests, activities and personal worlds, for example, नमस्ते, मुझे अपने दोस्तों के साथ खेलना अच्छा लगता है, मुझे क्रिकेट खेलना अच्छा लगता है क्योंकि …, गृह कार्य करने के बाद मैं टीवी देखता हूँ, नहा कर मैं पूजा करता हूँ,हर रविवार मैं मंदिर जाता हूँ ,हम सब मिल कर काम करते हैं। मेरे परिवार में पाँच लोग रहते हैं। मैं रोज़ अपने भाई के साथ खेलता हूँ। आपकी सहायता के लिये धन्यवाद ।They use formulaic expressions to participate in simple transactional exchanges and shared activities, for example, मेरे साथ आओ, हम मिल कर काम करेंग।मैं लिखता हूँ, यह यहाँ रखो, थोड़ा मैं लिखता हूँ बाकी तुम लिखो। मैं काटता हूँ ,तुम चिपकाओ। वाह! यह अच्छी बात है। क्या तुम कम्प्यूटर पर काम करना चाहते हो? They use simple questions and statements to follow instructions, respond to questions, ask for help and permission and seek clarification in everyday classroom routines, for example, यह क्या है? मुझे समझ नहीं आया। क्या आप मेरी मदद करेगें? यहाँ आओ, फिर से कहो। धन्यवाद, सब आराम से बैठो।स्कूल कब शुरू हो रहे हैं? स्कूल का खेल-दिवस कब है? When speaking and reading aloud, they use features of Hindi pronunciation and intonation. Students locate and organise information relating to their personal, social and natural worlds from different types of texts and present information about home, school and community in simple texts, using visual support, such as photos, maps or charts. They respond to imaginative texts by acting out key events or interactions and identifying favourite elements, and create simple imaginative texts, such as dialogues, puppet shows and songs. They use vocabulary related to school, home and the local environment, for example, चावल, रोटी, दाल, घर, कमरा, दरवाज़ा, घडी, कुर्सी, मेज़, किताबे, छात्र, पेंसिल, बोर्ड, पढ़ाई, लिखना, बोलना, पौधा, पेड़, फूल, घास, झूला, मोटरकार, रेलगाड़ी. Students use key grammatical forms and structures, such as verb tenses, nouns and adjectives, gender and number markers and conjunctions, for example, गया था, गयी, आऊँगी, आये, लड़का, लड़की, छोटा लड़का, छोटी लड़की, और, या, लेकिन, इसलिये, क्योंकि in simple spoken and written texts. They translate simple texts, such as captions and songs, identify words and phrases that are difficult to translate, and create simple bilingual texts for the classroom and school community. Students describe how the way they communicate reflects ways of behaving and thinking. They share their experiences of communicating in Hindi and English-speaking contexts and describe how their individual and group sense of identity is expressed in the languages they use.

Students identify and use Hindi sound and writing patterns, such as under-dot characters and punctuation conventions, for example, क़, ख़, ग़, ज़, फ़. They identify levels of compulsion implied in statements such as मुझे जाना चाहिए। मुझे जाना है। मुझे जाना पड़ता है. They identify ways that texts differ according to mode and context and compare Hindi texts with similar texts in English. They identify similarities and differences between various Hindi dialects and explain how age, gender and social position influence language use. Students provide examples of how the Hindi language has been influenced by and has influenced other languages. They investigate the use of Hindi and the nature of Hindi speakers in the international context. They compare Hindi and English language use and cultural practices, identifying culture-specific terms and expressions.

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Years 5 and 6  

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of learners This is a key transitional phase of learning. Learners communicate more confidently, are more self-directed, and self-reference in relation to wider contexts. Response to experience is more analytical and critical, allowing for a reflective dimension to language learning and to referencing cultural frameworks. Language and literacy capabilities in

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The nature of learners

This is a key transitional phase of learning. Learners communicate more confidently, are more self-directed, and self-reference in relation to wider contexts. Response to experience is more analytical and critical, allowing for a reflective dimension to language learning and to referencing cultural frameworks. Language and literacy capabilities in Hindi and English are developing in parallel trajectories within the curriculum. For some learners there will be greater discrepancy between proficiency in the two languages than for others. The curriculum ensures that learning experiences and activities are flexible enough to cater for learner variables, while being appropriate for learners' general cognitive and social levels.

Hindi language learning and use

Learners use Hindi in the classroom for a widening range of purposes: exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, competing and cooperating, performing, and responding to resources and experiences. Their communicative capabilities are stronger and more elaborated. They control and access wider vocabulary resources and use an increasingly sophisticated range of non-verbal strategies to support communication. Shared activities develop social, cognitive and language skills and provide a context for purposeful language experience and experimentation. At this level, focused attention to language structures and systems, literacy skills development and exploration of cultural elements of communication are conducted primarily in Hindi. Learners use ICT to support their learning in increasingly independent and intentional ways, exchanging resources and information with each other and with young people of the same age in other Hindi-speaking communities, accessing music and media resources, maintaining blogs and other web pages, and participating in social networks.

Oracy development at this level includes listening to a range of varied input from different sources and building more elaborated conversational and interactional skills. This includes initiating and sustaining conversations, using turn-taking protocols, ‘reading’ language for cultural and contextual meaning, reflecting on and responding to others’ contributions, making appropriate responses and adjustments, and engaging in debate and discussion. Individual and group oral presentation and performance skills are developed through researching and organising information; structuring, rehearsing and resourcing the content of the presentation; and selecting appropriate language to engage a particular audience.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact in Hindi with each other and the teacher, and with members of their families and communities. They have some access to Hindi speakers and cultural resources in wider contexts and communities through the use of ICT and through the media. Language development and use are incorporated into collaborative and interactive learning experiences, games and activities.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of published texts in print and digital forms, such as stories, videos, readers, songs and computer-generated learning materials. They also engage with resources prepared by their teacher, including games, performances, presentations and language exercises. They may have additional access to Hindi language and cultural resources created for Hindi-speaking communities, such as children’s television programs, websites, music or video clips.

Features of Hindi language use

Learners expand their understanding of Hindi grammatical forms and features, including the function of tenses to express actions or events in the past, present or future, जाता था, जाता हूँ, जाऊँगा, and of the passive voice to convey the distinction between actions happening and being caused to happen, बनना, बनाना, बनवाना. They use nouns and pronouns in singular and plural forms, मैं, हम, यह, ये and conjunctions to connect elements, phrases or sentences, राम ने खाना खाया और सो गया।. Literacy development involves increasingly independent interaction with a wider range of texts. Learners draw on more established grammatical and lexical resources to compose and comprehend more complex language. They use a range of cues and decoding strategies to help comprehension and to make connections between ideas, contexts and language within and between texts. They write more accurately and fluently for a wider range of purposes and audiences. With support, they build increasing cohesion and complexity into their written language production in terms of both content and expression. While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support is incorporated into task activity, and systematic feedback and review support the interactive process of learning. The use of Hindi and English for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and metalinguistic and intercultural capabilities.

Understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity is developed through guided investigation of how language features and expressions carry specific cultural meaning; through critical analysis of cultural stereotypes, attitudes and perspectives; and through exploration of issues related to personal and community identities. Learners take account of the variability of language use and textual practice in relation to factors such as gender, generation and status; and geographical, cultural and ethnic diversity. They reference themselves in relation to similar variables, and reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity and how these affect communication and intercultural experience through the lens of their own bicultural experiences.

Level of support

While learners become more autonomous and independent, ongoing support is still needed, including explicit instruction, structured modelling and scaffolding, provision of appropriate stimulus materials and timely feedback. Learning experiences incorporate implicit form-focused language learning activities and examples of texts and tasks. Learners are supported to use electronic and print reference resources, such as word banks, dictionaries and translating tools, and are encouraged to adopt a critical approach to resource selection.

The role of English

Hindi is the primary language for classroom routines, interactions and language learning tasks with English used in a supporting role. While the use of Hindi for discussion, reflection and explanation of content drawn from other learning areas is encouraged as much as possible, the use of some English for these aspects of learning supports the continued development of learners’ knowledge base, metalanguage and intercultural capability. The language of response varies according to task demands, with Hindi used primarily for communicating in structured and supported tasks and familiar interactions, and both Hindi and English for more open-ended and comparative discussions that develop understanding of language and culture.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact using descriptive and expressiveto give opinions,about themselves and their feelings and show interest in and respect for others

[Key concepts: communication, feelings, experiences; Key processes: interacting, responding, describing, comparing]


Use action-orientedto plan and conduct shared events and activities, such as performances at school assembly, activities with a buddy class or real or simulated shopping transactions

[Key concepts: performance, demonstration, exchange, transaction; Key processes: planning, collaborating, presenting, transacting]


Participate in familiar classroom interactions by asking and responding to questions, seeking clarification, reflecting on learning experiences and expressing preferences

[Key concepts: respect, negotiation, reflection; Key processes: initiating, responding, reflecting]

Informing

Collect, classify and compare information from a range of sources relating to social and cultural worlds

[Key concepts: environment, social worlds, community, values; Key processes: classifying, reviewing, comparing, analysing]


Convey information about aspects ofandin formats to suit different audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: content, cultural experience, audience; Key processes: planning, selecting, presenting]

Creating

Respond to texts such as folktales or contemporary cartoons or comic books, comparing responses to elements such as storylines,and themes

[Key concepts: characterisation, response, identification; Key processes: comparing, evaluating, identifying; Keytypes: fables, comic books, songs, stories]


Compose and perform expressive and imaginative texts such as stories, songs, skits or video clips based on a stimulus concept, theme or resource

[Key concepts: adaptation, genre, audience, effect; Key processes: creating, adapting, performing, experimenting; Keytypes: stories, poems, cartoons, songs, fables]

Translating

Translate simple school, community orfrom Hindi to English and vice versa, explaining words or phrases that need to be interpreted or explained

[Key concepts: meaning, translation, interpretation, culture; Key processes: translating, interpreting, explaining, evaluating]


bilingual texts such as websites, posters, games and word banks to support their own and others’ learning

[Key concepts: equivalence, alternatives; Key processes: explaining, commenting, reviewing]

Reflecting

Discuss the effects of switching between languages, noticing when they choose to use either Hindi or English and how eachand associated cultures influences their ways of communicating

[Key concepts: intercultural communication, difference,domains; Key processes: monitoring, adjusting, reflecting, describing]


Compare their experiences of moving between Hindi and English, considering advantages and challenges involved in using more than one language

[Key concepts: identity, intercultural communication; Key processes: reflecting, evaluating, comparing]

Understanding
Systems of language

Understand how the conventions of writtendetermine the structure and organisation of written language, and understand the relationship between word formation and pronunciation

[Key concepts: variation, discrimination, representation; Key processes: understanding, recognising, applying conventions]


Consolidate knowledge of grammatical elements such as distinctions between active and passive voice, the form and function of tenses, markers ofsuch as conjunctions and adverbs,moods and number and gender distinctions

[Key concepts: word order, mood, tense, rules; Key processes: discriminating, classifying, applying rules]


Understand how differentforms, such as prose and verse,effects to suit different audiences

[Key concepts: genre, imagery, register; Key processes: noticing, comparing, experimenting, explaining]

Language variation and change

Demonstrate awareness that Hindiuse involves variations in formal and informal styles, in spoken and written forms, and that it reflects relationships between participants

[Key concepts: mode, register, non-verbal language; Key processes: noticing, comparing, identifying]


Recognise that Hindi has evolved and developed through different periods of influence by other languages and cultures

[Key concepts:contact,change, globalisation; Key processes: observing, analysing, discussing, reflecting]


Reflect on their own use of Hindi, English and other languages or dialects for different social purposes, and recognise that they sometimes mix and switch between languages

[Key concepts:domains, multilingualism; Key processes: comparing, explaining, analysing, reflecting]

Role of language and culture

Reflect on how communities’ ways of using languages are shaped by values and belief systems, and how these may be differently interpreted by speakers of other languages

[Key concepts: perspective, culture, place, values; Key processes: questioning, analysing, identifying]

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Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Hindi to exchange personal information and experiences, to give opinions and express feelings. When interacting with others, they use expressive and descriptive language, for example, नमस्ते आप कैसे हैं, मैं ठीक हूँ। मेरी माँ मुझे बहुत प्यार करती है, मैं उनकी आँखों का तारा हूँ। मेरे परिवार में हम सब साथ साथ रहतेहैं।, मुझेलगता है आप ठीक कह रहे हैं। Students show interest in and respect for others, for example, मुझे माफ़ कीजिये, यह बहुत अच्छा है। बहुत खूब, मजा आ गया, यह बहुत अच्छा है। रमा मुझे माफ़ करना लेकिन मुझे लगता है कि...। सच पूछो तो मेरे विचार से…। मैं इस बात से सहमत हूँ कि….। They use action-oriented language to plan and conduct shared activities, for example, हम यह कहना चाहते हैं कि...। मैं आज आप को कुछ जानकारी देने जा रहा हूँ। हमारे समूह का विचार है कि..., हम आप के सामने आप एक नाटक पेश करने जा रहे हैं, आज हम आप के सामने प्रस्तुत करने जा रहे हैं... and complete transactions, for example, इसका क्या दाम है? , मुझे एक किलो दाल दीजिये। यह पोशाक कितने की है ये आम कितने के हैं? आपकी दुकान में सब से अच्छी फोटो कौन सी है , मुझे ठंडा शरबत चाहिये। क्या आप के यहाँ शाकाहारी भोजन मिलता हैं? आप के भोजनालय में सबसे स्वादिष्ट व्यंजन कौन सा है? मुझे दो रोटी के साथ एक दाल मक्खनी दे दीजिए.. When participating in classroom routines and activities, they ask and respond to questions, express opinions and ask for clarification, for example, है न?, नही, हाँ, यह क्या है?, मुझे समझ नहीं आया फिर से समझाइये, ठीक है, यह कैसे करनाहै, मेरे हिसाब से वहाँ जाना ठीक नहींहै, यह खाना बहुत स्वादिष्ट है, हमे वहाँ से खाना लेना चाहिये. Students use patterns of Hindi pronunciation and intonation when interacting, identifying regional variations. They gather, classify and compare information related to social and cultural worlds from a range of spoken, written and visual texts. They present information about aspects of language and culture in different formats selected to suit audience and context. They respond to a range of imaginative texts by identifying and discussing key elements such as storylines, characters and themes, for example, अमर चित्र कथा, पँचतंत्र की कहानियाँ, दादी की कहानियाँ, अल्लाद्दीन का चिराग, चाचा चौधरी और साबू, विक्रम और बैताल, पिंकी और बबलू, अकबर -बीरबल के क़िस्से. They create and perform short imaginative texts based on a stimulus, concept or theme, for example, दोस्ती, प्रेम, अहिंसा, अतिथि-सत्कार, अनेकता में एकता. When constructing texts, students use a variety of tenses, for example, खा रहा था, खा रही थी, खा रहा हूँ, खाऊँगा, खायेगा, खायेगी, जा रहा था, जाऊँगा, जा रहा हूँ adverbs, for example, साथ-साथ, अगर-मगर, कभी-कभी, धीरे-धीरे, जल्दी में, दौड़ते हुए and verb forms expressing actions happening, being made to happen or caused to happen, for example, बनना, बनाना, बन जाना। They connect their ideas using conjunctions, for example, मैंने स्वेटर पहना क्योंकि मुझे ठण्ड लग रही थी, तुम यहाँ बैठो या वहाँ जा कर खड़े हो जाओ, उसने दवाई खाई पर असर नहीं हुआ, राम ने खाना खाया और सो गया। They use number and gender distinctions such as एक आदमी, कई आदमी, एक लड़का, तीन लड़के, बेटी, बेटियाँ, नदी, नदियाँ. Students translate texts from Hindi into English and vice versa, identifying words and phrases that need interpretation, for example, उँगली पर नचाना, नाक में दम करना, अपने घर में कुत्ता भी शेर होता है, अंगूर खट्टे हैं. They create bilingual texts for their own and others’ learning. They identify how being bilingual and bicultural contributes to their own identity and influences their ways of communicating.

Students identify the relationship between word formation and pronunciation and apply the conventions of written script to their own constructions. They distinguish between active and passive voice and the intonation patterns of statements, questions and exclamations, for example, वह पास हो गया! क्या आप वहाँ जाएँगे? तुम अच्छे बच्चे हो।. They identify negative constructions, including negative forms of verbs and adjectives and the form and function of tenses, for example, सोहन ने फिल्म नहीं देखी। झूठ कभी मत बोलो. They distinguish between the structure and features of different forms of spoken and written texts and identify ways that texts create effects to suit different audiences. They give examples of how language use and ways of communicating vary according to the degree of formality and context, purpose and audience. They explain factors that have affected Hindi language over time, including the impact of other languages and cultures such as Sanskrit, Persian, English and Arabic. They give examples of how their language use varies according to social context and purpose and identify how ways of using languages are shaped by values and belief systems.

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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners The transition to secondary schooling involves social and academic demands that coincide with a period of maturational and physical change. Learners are adjusting to a new school culture with sharper divisions between curriculum areas. There is a need for continuity through change in relation to their language learning. Learners at this level m

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The nature of the learners

The transition to secondary schooling involves social and academic demands that coincide with a period of maturational and physical change. Learners are adjusting to a new school culture with sharper divisions between curriculum areas. There is a need for continuity through change in relation to their language learning. Learners at this level may find themselves in classes involving a range of previous experience with Hindi language-culture. A multilevel and differentiated approach to teaching and task design responds to this diversity of prior experience.

Hindi language learning and use

Hindi is used for classroom interactions and transactions, for creating and maintaining classroom relationships, for explaining and practising language forms, and for developing cultural understanding. Additional opportunities for interaction in the target language are provided by purposeful and integrated use of ICT. Learners work collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar and unfamiliar contexts, and increasingly generate original and personal language. They compose and present more complex and varied texts (for example, media and hypermedia texts, shared stories, poetry, songs/raps, blogs, advertisements, reports and journal entries), and plan, draft and present imaginative and informative texts They design interactive events and collaborative learning experiences and participate in discussions and activities. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy, drafting and editing written work to improve structure and clarify meaning. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experience.

Contexts of interaction

While the primary context of interaction remains the Hindi language classroom, learners are encouraged to engage in interactions with peers in India and other Hindi-speaking regions of the world, including Australia, through electronic means of communication. Learners have additional access to Hindi speakers through media and community events, websites, social media and radio streaming.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts specifically designed for learning Hindi in school, such as textbooks, literary texts, videos, readers and online media resources. They also access materials created for Hindi-speaking communities, such as songs, films, magazines, advertisements and websites. They read, view and interact with a growing range of texts for a wider range of purposes (for example, informational, transactional, communicative, imaginative and expressive).

Features of Hindi language use

Learners expand their range of vocabulary to domains beyond their personal experience and interests, applying phonic and grammatical knowledge to spell and write unfamiliar words. They use a range of grammatical forms and language structures to convey more complex relationships between ideas and experiences, creating compound and complex sentences by using postpositions such as मैं अभी लिखूँगा ताकि समय पूरा होने से पहले लेख खत्म कर लूँ।. They recognise the function and form of commonly used suffixes and prefixes and relationships between words with a shared base, such as बुद्धि, सुबुद्धि, बुद्धिमान, बुद्धिमती. They distinguish between active and passive voice according to context, मैंने आपको बुलाया है। आपको बुलाया गया है। and use a range of tenses to describe routines and actions, मैं दिल्ली जा रहा हूँ। मैं दिल्ली गया था।मैं दिल्ली जाऊँगा. They develop awareness of how language structures shape textual features, and they adopt a wider range of processing strategies, drawing increasingly on their understanding of text conventions when encountering unfamiliar texts. They continue to build metalanguage to describe grammatical and textual features. They recognise and use idiomatic expressions such as आँख का तारा, and employ descriptive and expressive language, including onomatopoeic and mimetic words, to create particular effects and engage interest.

Learners make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine how people, issues and circumstances are represented. They are increasingly aware of the relationship between languages and cultures, noticing, for example, values such as family commitment and respect expressed in cultural practices as well as embedded in Hindi grammatical and vocabulary systems. They reflect on the nature of bicultural and intercultural experience, on how languages change in response to social and cultural change, and on their individual identities as users of two or more languages in a multicultural social context.

Level of support

Particular support is required at this stage of learning to manage the transition to secondary schooling and to encourage continued engagement with language learning. Opportunities to review and consolidate prior learning are balanced against provision of engaging and relevant new experiences and more challenging tasks. Learners require continued scaffolding, modelling and material support at paragraph and whole-text level for written language and for developing fluency and accuracy in spoken language. They are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in various contexts. They are encouraged to engage more critically with resources such as websites, dictionaries, translating tools and other language resources designed to enrich their receptive and productive language use.

The role of English

Hindi is used in more extended and elaborated ways and English is used when appropriate for comparison or reflection. Using Hindi to express ideas and feelings, exchange opinions and manage shared activities increasingly involves ‘cultural’ as well as ‘linguistic’ choices, personal and social elements as well as grammatical ones, such as making decisions about the use of titles and polite prefixes. At this stage, learners draw from both languages as they move from the what considerations to the why and how questions: from noticing that language and communication are culturally shaped to thinking about the values, experiences and perspectives that lie inside cultural differences, and about how these impact on their own experience as they move between languages and cultural systems.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate and sustain a range of spoken, written and online interactions, for example, exchanging views or experiences, offering opinions and making connections across different areas of interest

[Key concepts: relationship, experience, communication; Key processes: interacting, listening, responding, recounting]


Engage in collaborative activities that involve planning, problem-solving, communicating and transacting in real or simulated situations and contexts

[Key concepts: design, transaction, planning; Key processes: transacting, considering, problem-solving, decision-making]


Interact with peers and the teacher to complete learning activities and to support their own and others’ learning by managing debate and discussion and checking understanding

[Key concepts: debate, perspective, exchange, response; Key processes: discussing, responding, evaluating, reflecting]

Informing

Access, collate and analyse information from different print and digital sources to present an overview or develop a position on selected issues or interests

[Key concepts: perspective, context, representation; Key processes: comparing, analysing, presenting, profiling]


Use different modes ofto report on personal or shared perspectives, views and experiences or to invite action or debate

[Key concepts: experience, cultural expression; Key processes: designing, reporting, comparing]

Creating

and compare representations of values,and events from a range of traditional and contemporary imaginative texts

[Key concepts: theme, representation, values, humour; Key processes: comparing, analysing, identifying; Keytypes: cartoons, games, fables, films]


and perform a range of texts to entertain others that involve imaginedand contexts and different modes of presentation

[Key concepts: creativity, characterisation, imagination, emotion; Key processes: composing, performing; Keytypes: sketches, drama, songs, stories, cartoons]