Years F–10 Sequence

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Foundation to Year 2  

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students will have some exposure to Chinese language and culture in the context of their family and community life. They are likely to have high oracy skills but low literacy skills in Chinese. In the school environment they begin to understand how they use more than one language in their daily lives. Chinese la

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The nature of the learners

Students will have some exposure to Chinese language and culture in the context of their family and community life. They are likely to have high oracy skills but low literacy skills in Chinese. In the school environment they begin to understand how they use more than one language in their daily lives.

Chinese language learning and use

For background language learners the focus is on making connections between their oracy and literacy. Students use Chinese for most class activities and group responses, participating in active listening and action-related talk, games and play. They will be immersed in the sounds and sights of Chinese. They read short texts, share ideas about daily life and adapt the language they know to different contexts. Classroom interactions are mediated by teacher questioning and interactive talk in Chinese.

Contexts of interaction

Students are exposed to Chinese in the classroom and in their home and local community environments. Classroom experiences are likely to be structured compared to other contexts. Students communicate with peers, teachers and known adults. They begin to engage with Chinese culture through participating in community- and school-based celebrations, song and dance. Contexts are focused mostly on the here and now.

Texts and resources

Background language learners are exposed to a range of texts, including traditional oral texts, picture books, stories, rhyming verse, songs, poetry, multimodal texts and dramatic performances. Learners engage with Chinese language and culture through participating in celebrations.

Features of Chinese language use

Students recognise tones as an important element of Chinese speech and learn how the sounds of Chinese can be encoded in Pinyin, using Roman letters that often convey different sounds than students are accustomed to in English. Students view samples of characters as captions to images and as text in storybooks often defined in Pinyin. They learn to recognise basic character forms that represent familiar objects and ideas and convey significant cultural meanings.

Level of support

Chinese language use is scaffolded, prompted and modelled by the teacher.

The role of English

English is used where appropriate to allow for explanation, reflection and substantive discussion.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate interactions, make requests and establish relationships with teachers and peers

[Key concepts: belonging, home, family, friendship; Key processes: requesting, greeting, thanking, introducing]


Collaborate with others in group activities and contribute to learning activities

[Key concepts: self, family, home; Key processes: interpreting, locating]

Informing

Locate information about people and objects from a range of sources, and sequence events

[Key concepts: same, different; Key processes: identifying, sharing]


Convey simple information to peers using illustrations and gestures to support meaning, and respond to questions from others

[Key concepts: family, home, routines; Key processes: greeting, thanking, imitating]

Creating

Participate in and respond to performances and shared reading of children’s stories, songs and rhymes with a focus on rhythm, gesture and stress

[Key concept: imagination; Key processes: participating, responding]


own representations of imagined people or events using illustrations and actions

[Key concept: imagination; Key processes: sharing, experimenting, reading, viewing]

Translating

Explain the English meanings of Chinese words and simple phrases heard or seen in everyday social contexts

[Key concept: belonging; Key processes: translating, moving between]


simple bilingual vocabulary lists identifying and comparing vowel and consonant sounds in Chinese and English

[Key concepts: bilingualism, vocabulary; Key processes: translating, interpreting]

Reflecting

Reflect on aspects of their Chineseand personal relationships with others

[Key concepts: belonging, place; Key processes: reflecting, observing, noticing

Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise the four tones and their function in Chinese, and compare consonant and vowel sounds in Chinese and English


Recognise thatare the written representation of spoken Chinese and the morphological nature of Chinese words


Recognise parts of speech and understand basic rules of word order in simple sentences


Recognise features of various familiartypes in Chinese

Language variation and change

Recognise diversity in expressions and gestures used in everyday social interaction across cultures


Recognise Chinese as a major communityin Australia and around the world, and understand thatuse varies according to cultural background

Role of language and culture

Recognise differences and similarities inacross cultures, such as greetings, names and gestures

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Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students use spoken Chinese to initiate interactions in a range of familiar contexts. They obtain and convey information and experiences relating to their personal world in simple exchanges. They use learned vocabulary, sounds, characters and culturally specific actions and gestures to convey meaning. They exchange greetings, introduce themselves and each other, and express thanks and apologies, for example, 我的中文名字叫小强, 你叫什么? They interact with and create simple predictable imaginative and informative texts such as 我的狗很大,它的尾巴很长, using familiar characters and sounds. They use images, actions and gesture to show that they understand the meaning of words when speaking, listening, reading, viewing and writing.

Students identify the four Chinese tones and their function. They know that there is a metalanguage to describe the distinct writing and speech systems in Chinese. They compare English and Chinese consonant and vowel sounds. They copy and trace characters and identify key components in familiar characters. They identify how their Chinese identity influences some of their language choices when interacting with familiar adults and peers.

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Years 3 and 4  

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners Learners explore how they use more than one language in their daily lives, and use Chinese in relation to their personal world, countries where Chinese is spoken and the world of imagination. Chinese language learning and use Students engage with Chinese language through speaking, listening, read

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The nature of the learners

Learners explore how they use more than one language in their daily lives, and use Chinese in relation to their personal world, countries where Chinese is spoken and the world of imagination.

Chinese language learning and use

Students engage with Chinese language through speaking, listening, reading, viewing and writing. They understand more words than they can say or write, and use this knowledge to attempt to say and spell unfamiliar words. Learners use Chinese to participate in action-related talk and to complete tasks. The focus of these activities is still on connecting their background oracy with their literacy.

Contexts of interaction

At this level, students are likely to focus on both formal and informal exchanges in familiar situations with familiar audiences, such as in a range of face-to-face and online/virtual environments where they are able to identify a range of responses. Likely contexts for interaction are situated within everyday educational experiences as well as students’ personal, family and social environments. In these contexts they have opportunities to notice that there are similarities and differences in the ways people communicate both within and across cultural groups.

Texts and resources

Students are exposed to a wide range of voices and settings where Chinese is used, including some extended passages in written and oral form. Students are exposed to culturally valued texts, including traditional oral texts, fables, stories, songs and picture books. They encounter various types of print and digital texts, simple chapter books, rhyming verse, poetry, nonfiction, film, multimodal texts and dramatic performances.

Features of Chinese language use

Oral language use draws on topics and concepts encountered in other learning areas, building students’ capacity to describe and explore these in Chinese. Students use Chinese to share everyday experiences with each other. They develop literacy skills by beginning to read fables and legends and write stories and recounts. Pinyin is used as a tool to develop students’ pronunciation and to assist their understanding of the nature of the spoken language. Students begin to develop orthographic and morphological awareness by exploring the relationship between characters and morphemes.

Level of support

The teacher explores and enhances students’ understanding of the similarities and differences between Chinese and English and supports their development of Chinese literacy and oracy. Vocabulary lists and model texts support literacy development.

The role of English

English is used for discussion, reflection and explanation to assist the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and intercultural capability.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact and socialise with peers and teachers to exchange thoughts and feelings about home routines, leisure activities and community events

[Key concepts: recreation, routine, place; Key processes: discussing, sharing, transacting]


Collaborate in and make decisions about group activities and learning experiences in familiar contexts

[Key concept: collaboration, public life ; Key processes: interpreting, exchanging]

Informing

Gather and organise factual information from familiar sources about countries and places

[Key concepts: information, fact; Key processes: obtaining, processing]


Convey key points of information to familiar audiences

[Key concepts: information, significance; Key process: obtaining]

Creating

Respond to simple fables and legends through discussion ofand events

[Key concepts: morality; Key processes: creating, responding]


short personal narratives and performances of poetry, song, dance or drama which reflect theand traditions of the Chinese community

[Key concepts: imagination, point of view; Key processes: responding, expressing]

Translating

Identify common spoken Chinese expressions and discuss examples of actions, words and phrases that do not readily translate into English

[Key concepts: equivalence, idiom; Key processes: translating, identifying, discussing]


Translate simple English texts into Chinese and vice versa, using strategies for building vocabulary and interpreting intended meaning of words in English and Chinese

[Key concepts: morphology, bilingualism; Key processes: identifying, translating, interpreting]

Reflecting

Reflect on their reactions and responses to others when participating in learning and cultural experiences in Chinese and Australian contexts

[Key concepts: identity, place; Key processes: responding, identifying]

Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise the tonal features of Chinese in own speech, and understand when and why some tones are not expressed in some contexts and how syllables are decoded from and encoded into Pinyin


Identify the form, composition and spacing within characters, relating components and their positions to their meaning and sound


Develop ways to structure sentences in Chinese to elaborate own ideas


Recognise similarities and differences in the structure of spoken and written texts that have the same purpose

Language variation and change

Recognise how theof interactions influenceschoices


Explore diversity in dialects and in contexts in which Chinese is used in Australian communities

Role of language and culture

Explore how the Chineserepresents cultural meanings in specific ways

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Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students use spoken and written Chinese to initiate interactions and to participate in short exchanges, for example, 你晚饭吃什么?,我学汉语和英语,站起来, 大家听老师说. They organise and convey factual information and share experiences in formal and informal situations, making appropriate choices of characters, words and pronunciation. They use demonstratives such as 这、那、那些 with measure words and verbs to indicate agreement ( 对,好的 )and preferences ( 要、想、喜欢 ). They respond to and create short imaginative, informative and persuasive texts for familiar audiences and identified purposes. Students select from known speech patterns to meet routine, procedural and informal conversational needs.

Students know that Pinyin represents spoken language, and map Pinyin against their own speech. They distinguish between the contexts in which tones are expressed and those in which they are not. They identify features of the Chinese writing system, including the range of strokes and their sequences in character writing; and the relationship between components and sound and meaning. Students identify ways of structuring ideas in sentences, including the role of correct sequencing of time and place. They describe features of Chinese language and culture, and compare how ideas are conveyed across languages and cultures.

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Years 5 and 6  

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students use their bilingual and bicultural capabilities and understandings within the world of their own experience and imagination and draw on some topics from other learning areas. They are extending their knowledge of language structure and of texts. Chinese language learning and use Students

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The nature of the learners

Students use their bilingual and bicultural capabilities and understandings within the world of their own experience and imagination and draw on some topics from other learning areas. They are extending their knowledge of language structure and of texts.

Chinese language learning and use

Students are immersed in Chinese across speaking, listening, reading, writing and viewing; where practicable, activities may include those designed collaboratively with teachers in other learning areas to provide opportunities for translating or interpreting. Students speak and write in Chinese to express their own interests. They begin to appreciate how their own language use compares to modern standard forms in terms of pronunciation, tone and rhythm. They consciously use aspects of grammar in their language learning and employ a range of implicit and explicit models in response to teacher prompting. They consider audience, purpose, and appropriate language choices in their cultural and communicative practices.

Contexts of interaction

Students actively communicate in Chinese in classroom, school, home and community environments. They begin to interact with other language users via the online environment and other digital forums.

Texts and resources

Students engage with visual media, music, cartoons, stories, games and documentaries. They use multimedia for researching, exploration and collaboration. They create a range of short imaginative, informative and persuasive texts.

Features of Chinese language use

Students learn to analyse new characters encountered in texts, with a focus on mapping these character forms to their known spoken language. Students make comparisons between societies, social structures and belief systems and explore how these are conveyed through language. They discover and discuss diversity in cultural identity and experience. Students explore the Chinese past through texts such as fables and classical stories. Written language use includes reading and comparing Chinese and English children’s literature.

Level of support

Correct Chinese language use continues to be modelled by the teacher to support students’ oracy and literacy development. Texts often have Pinyin glossaries or include vocabulary lists to support learning.

The role of English

English is used to compare languages and explore complex ideas related to language, culture, learning and concepts from other learning areas.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact and socialise with peers and known adults, exchanging ideas and opinions about personal experiences and social activities

[Key concepts: place, identity, community; Key processes: negotiating, transacting, arranging]


Take action, resolve issues, make shared decisions and organise shared experiences

[Key concepts: place, identity; Key processes: interpreting, negotiating, selecting]

Informing

Locate and compare factual information from different sources about different communities and lifestyles

[Key concept: lifestyle; Key processes: informing, selecting]


Plan and present key points of information to familiar audiences

[Key concept: social action; Key processes; presenting, conveying]

Creating

Respond to popular stories andfrom Chinese folklore, sharing opinions on aspects of the storyline,and themes

[Key concepts: significance, tradition; Key processes: comparing, responding, creating]


short narratives to express the experiences, thoughts and emotions of individuals in imagined contexts

[Key concepts: character, emotion; Key processes: comparing, responding, creating]

Translating

Identify and account for the potential loss of subtle meanings fromand individualin compounds when translating into English

[Key concept: meaning; Key processes: translating, interpreting, negotiating meaning]


simple bilingual texts for different audiences, explaining features of the different versions and the impact of context

[Key concepts: audience, context; Key processes: identifying, translating, interpreting, negotiating meaning]

Reflecting

Reflect on the benefits of learning Chinese and English in both Chinese and English interactions

[Key concepts: place, biculturalism, identity; Key processes: observing, explaining, reflecting]

Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise the use of tone,andof words to express emotion, opinion and attitude


Recognise the contextual meanings of individual syllables orto assist comprehension and vocabulary development, and explain the form and function of components in individual characters, for example, 心,想,情,闷


Understand and use basic structures and features of Chinese grammar to enhance meaning and clarity of expression


Recognise and apply conventions of personal texts and compare textual features of different texts

Language variation and change

Differentiate key features and apply rules for expressing meanings in spoken and written modes in diverse contexts


Explore the impact of English on everydayin Chinese and the impact of Chinese on English

Role of language and culture

Explore particular cultural meanings conveyed in everyday interactions across languages

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Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Chinese to maintain interactions with familiar and unfamiliar people across a growing range of situations (for example, 你星期几去汉语学校?,你说…对吗?); to convey information, opinions and experiences (for example, 我喜欢踢澳式足球,你呢?); and to access a range of print and digital media resources, such as 童书,报纸,画册,科学书,传单,广告, 教材,地图. They write characters, paying attention to shape, and stroke order and proportion. They transcribe spoken words and sentences in Pinyin and select simplified characters to match the sounds they hear. They use stress, tone and intonation to express emotion and opinion. They respond to and create a range of short informative, persuasive and imaginative texts for diverse audiences and purposes. They relate their own experiences to those presented in texts, for example, 《如果我是…》 . They create sentences that include prepositions ( 给 、跟 、对 ) and possessives and attributive clauses with particle 的 . They use a range of verbs, and use verb complements to describe the direction, result or potential of an action. They use conjunctions (for example, 可是、或者、因为、除了 )to connect ideas and elaborate on or clarify opinions and actions. They explain how their developing bilingual ability supports their identities as users of Chinese and English.

Students explain the nature of Pinyin and apply it to their own speech. They categorise characters into groups based on meaning, appearance, pronunciation or function and apply this information to new characters. They compare the word order of Chinese sentences with that of English, and identify how their knowledge of English impacts on the way they express ideas in Chinese. They describe how the features of Chinese and English texts are used to convey meaning.

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Years 7 and 8  

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners Students maintain their sense of belonging to both their home and their outside culture. They can alter their conduct to fit different contexts within the world of teenage experience. Chinese language learning and use Classroom interaction is primarily conducted in Chinese. Students extend their

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The nature of the learners

Students maintain their sense of belonging to both their home and their outside culture. They can alter their conduct to fit different contexts within the world of teenage experience.

Chinese language learning and use

Classroom interaction is primarily conducted in Chinese. Students extend their knowledge of language structures and text organisation through reading and viewing authentic material and discussing how to apply new learning to their own communication. They are immersed in Chinese language, exploring issues related to youth culture, environmental conservation, family structure and welfare, and the features of diverse Chinese personal and social environments.

Contexts of interaction

Students use Chinese at school and home, and through increased engagement with members of their local communities. The online environment is used to connect students with other Chinese language users globally.

Texts and resources

Students engage with a variety of text types and modes, including visual and digital media, music, TV series, documentaries, and bilingual versions of classic and contemporary literature and their film adaptations.

Features of Chinese language use

Students extend their writing skills to include more persuasive language and more formal genres, such as articles and reports. They participate in presentations on topics related to the history and geography of Chinese-speaking communities, and initiate discussion through enquiry. Students begin to compare their own pronunciation to modern standard spoken Chinese. They also explore the influence of English on their own communication in Chinese, in pronunciation and linguistic structures, and the role of code-switching in their daily language use. Students develop their skills in analysing characters and recognising word and clause boundaries in extended text.

Level of support

Correct Chinese language use continues to be modelled by the teacher to support students’ oracy and literacy development. Glossaries, vocabulary lists, dictionaries and translation tools are used to support comprehension.

The role of English

English is used when required for comparison or to explore complex ideas related to language, culture and concepts from other learning areas.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact and socialise with familiar groups and individuals, exchanging personal information such as sporting achievements, favourite pastimes, and sharing perspectives on aspects of contemporary life such as popular music,

[Key concept: perspective; Key processes: transacting, connecting]


Participate in planning joint projects and events that would benefit the local community, justifying choices and making decisions

[Key concepts: community, benefit; Key process: interpreting, negotiating, collaborating]

Informing

Collate and analyse information from a range of sources to develop a position on an issue

[Key concepts: bias, perspective; Key processes: collating, analysing]


Plan and convey key points of information and opinions based on information drawn from a range of sources

[Key concept: multiculturalism; Key processes: collaborating, comparing, evaluating]

Creating

Express opinions about how popular imaginative texts, including poems and 故事, reveal important cultural values

[Key concepts: values, beliefs, attitudes; Key processes: comparing, contrasting]


narratives that express the everyday experiences of young people, experimenting with dialogue

[Key concepts: imagination, attitude, beliefs; Key processes: analysing, creating]

Translating

Translate short texts for different audiences, identifying what is lost inand considering alternative ways to explain key points

[Key concepts: concept, public, personal; Key processes: comparing, translating]


bilingual texts relating to other learning areas and topics of interest, considering the influence of different roles, relationships, settings and situations when interpreting both Chinese and English

[Key concepts: audience, context, bilingualism; Key processes: identifying, translating, interpreting]

Reflecting

Reflect on own intercultural experiences, and contrast ways in which people of different generations, genders and linguistic backgrounds useand respond to different experiences

[Key concepts: change, continuity; Key processes: reflecting, shaping]

Understanding
Systems of language

Identify changes inthat occur when words or tones are combined, recognise atonality in rapid connected speech, and use this knowledge to aid in interpreting meaning


Use character and component knowledge to infer sound and meaning of newencountered in texts, and examine component form and function to associate the correct sound and meaning with individual


Recognise ways of organising and expressing ideas in Chinese


Identify structure and organisation of different texts, including expositions, procedural texts and recounts, and use these in their own speech and writing

Language variation and change

Understand howis used to reflect different roles, relationships, settings and values and modifyuse in diverse contexts


Explore the significance of tradition in 名人名言 and 经典, and contemporary influences onuse