Models for applying Catholic Social Teaching to Life Situations: Model 2: Pastoral Spiral (Pastoral Circle)Social action is closely linked to the CST principles. Social action is a call to live out the Gospel through focusing on human dignity and caring for God's creation through opportunities for public advocacy and action. Catholics are called to mission in two distinct and complementary ways: social justice and charitable works. Social justice addresses systemic, root causes of problems that affect many people, and charitable work addresses short-term emergency assistance for individuals. There are a number of methods which can be used to analyse issues related to justice. These methods help us to reflect on what is happening in society, what issues need to be addressed and what action might be taken as a result of our analysis. According to Pope John XXIII (Mater et Magistra, 1961), “There are three stages which should normally be followed in the reduction of social principles into practice. First, one reviews the concrete situation; secondly, one forms a judgment on it in the light of these same principles; thirdly, one decides what in the circumstances can and should be done to implement these principles. ”The Pastoral Spiral or Pastoral Circle was developed by Fr Peter Henriot sj and Joe Holland as a framework for responding to issues and situations of social injustice. The method consists of four 'moments': experience, analysis, theological reflection, and response. The four moments provide spaces in which to draw on each of the sources of Catholic social ethics: Scripture, Tradition, reason and experience. The moments also enable us to engage feelings and imagination, to dialogue and to contemplate. The pastoral spiral provides a tool for drawing on Catholic Social Teaching and prevents us from rushing into action without paying attention to the experience of those most affected and giving adequate time and attention to analysis of and reflection on the issue or situation. The name 'pastoral spiral' emphasizes the circle is not closed. Our response leads to a new reality; we are changed by our action. We do not return to the same experience allowing the process of analysis, reflection and action to continue. insert1. What is happening?: Experiencea. What is the current situation? b. What is happening that we would like to consider more deeply? 2. Why is it happening?: Social Analysisa. In this stage, you need to consider the social, cultural, economic, political, environmental and ecclesial factors that influence the situation. These are complex questions that provide a framework for a deeper consideration of the situation: i. What influence do policy and economics have? ii. What role do cultural values play in the situation? iii. What are the causes of the situation and why? iv. What do the people need or want? v. What institutions have shaped the situation for better or worse? Government? Church? Family? Community Groups? Corporations? 3. What does it mean? : Theological reflectiona. What does the Catholic tradition have to say about the situation? i. What do we understand from Scripture about the situation?ii. What does Catholic Social Teaching have to say? iii. What light do men and women through Church history bring to the situation? iv. How might God be calling us to respond? 4. Action or Responsea. Identify a possible response to the situation and practical steps that can be takeni. What is a realistic goal? ii. What specific steps could I/we take? iii. How can I/we assist people to engage in responding to the situation?